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- Item2D analysis of polydisperse core-shell nanoparticles using analytical ultracentrifugation(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017) Walter, Johannes; Gorbet, Gary E.; Akdas, Tugce; Segets, Doris; Demeler, Borries; Peukert, WolfgangAccurate knowledge of the size, density and composition of nanoparticles (NPs) is of major importance for their applications. In this work the hydrodynamic characterization of polydisperse core–shell NPs by means of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is addressed. AUC is one of the most accurate techniques for the characterization of NPs in the liquid phase because it can resolve particle size distributions (PSDs) with unrivaled resolution and detail. Small NPs have to be considered as core–shell systems when dispersed in a liquid since a solvation layer and a stabilizer shell will significantly contribute to the particle's hydrodynamic diameter and effective density. AUC measures the sedimentation and diffusion transport of the analytes, which are affected by the core–shell compositional properties. This work demonstrates that polydisperse and thus widely distributed NPs pose significant challenges for current state-of-the-art data evaluation methods. The existing methods either have insufficient resolution or do not correctly reproduce the core–shell properties. First, we investigate the performance of different data evaluation models by means of simulated data. Then, we propose a new methodology to address the core–shell properties of NPs. This method is based on the parametrically constrained spectrum analysis and offers complete access to the size and effective density of polydisperse NPs. Our study is complemented using experimental data derived for ZnO and CuInS2 NPs, which do not have a monodisperse PSD. For the first time, the size and effective density of such structures could be resolved with high resolution by means of a two-dimensional AUC analysis approach.
- ItemAspheric solute ions moderate gold nanoparticle interactions in an aqueous solution: an optimal way to reversibly concentrate functionalized nanoparticles(American Chemical Society, 2015) Villarreal, Oscar D.; Chen, Liao Y.; Whetten, Robert L.; Demeler, BorriesNanometer-sized gold particles (AuNPs) are of peculiar interest because their behaviors in an aqueous solution are sensitive to changes in environmental factors including the size and shape of the solute ions. In order to determine these important characteristics, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on the icosahedral Au144 nanoparticles each coated with a homogeneous set of 60 thiolates (4-mercaptobenzoate, pMBA) in eight aqueous solutions having ions of varying sizes and shapes (Na+, K+, tetramethylamonium cation TMA+, tris-ammonium cation TRS+, Cl–, and OH–). For each solution, we computed the reversible work (potential of mean of force) to bring two nanoparticles together as a function of their separation distance. We found that the behavior of pMBA protected Au144 nanoparticles can be readily modulated by tuning their aqueous environmental factors (pH and solute ion combinations). We examined the atomistic details on how the sizes and shapes of solute ions quantitatively factor in the definitive characteristics of nanoparticle–environment and nanoparticle–nanoparticle interactions. We predict that tuning the concentrations of nonspherical composite ions such as TRS+ in an aqueous solution of AuNPs be an effective means to modulate the aggregation propensity desired in biomedical and other applications of small charged nanoparticles.
- ItemBiophysical characterisation of human LincRNA-p21 sense and antisense Alu inverted repeats(Oxford University Press, 2022) D'Souza, Michael H.; Mrozowich, Tyler; Badmalia, Maulik D.; Geeraert, Mitchell; Frederickson, Angela; Henrickson, Amy; Demeler, Borries; Wolfinger, Michael T.; Patel, Trushar R.Human Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA-p21 (LincRNA-p21) is a regulatory noncoding RNA that plays an important role in promoting apoptosis. LincRNA-p21 is also critical in down-regulating many p53 target genes through its interaction with a p53 repressive complex. The interaction between LincRNA-p21 and the repressive complex is likely dependent on the RNA tertiary structure. Previous studies have determined the two-dimensional secondary structures of the sense and antisense human LincRNA-p21 AluSx1 IRs using SHAPE. However, there were no insights into its three-dimensional structure. Therefore, we in vitro transcribed the sense and antisense regions of LincRNA-p21 AluSx1 Inverted Repeats (IRs) and performed analytical ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, light scattering, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. Based on these studies, we determined low-resolution, three-dimensional structures of sense and antisense LincRNA-p21. By adapting previously known two-dimensional information, we calculated their sense and antisense high-resolution models and determined that they agree with the low-resolution structures determined using SAXS. Thus, our integrated approach provides insights into the structure of LincRNA-p21 Alu IRs. Our study also offers a viable pipeline for combining the secondary structure information with biophysical and computational studies to obtain high-resolution atomistic models for long noncoding RNAs.
- ItemBMI1 regulates PRC1 architecture and activity through homo- and hetero-oligomerization(Nature Publishing, 2016) Gray, Felicia; Cho, Hyo Je; Shukla, Shirish; He, Shihan; Harris, Ashley; Boytsov, Bohdan; Jaremko, Lukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Demeler, Borries; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Grembecka, Jolanta; Cierpicki, TomaszBMI1 is a core component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and emerging data support a role of BMI1 in cancer. The central domain of BMI1 is involved in protein–protein interactions and is essential for its oncogenic activity. Here, we present the structure of BMI1 bound to the polyhomeotic protein PHC2 illustrating that the central domain of BMI1 adopts an ubiquitin-like (UBL) fold and binds PHC2 in a β-hairpin conformation. Unexpectedly, we find that the UBL domain is involved in homo-oligomerization of BMI1. We demonstrate that both the interaction of BMI1 with polyhomeotic proteins and homo-oligomerization via UBL domain are necessary for H2A ubiquitination activity of PRC1 and for clonogenic potential of U2OS cells. Here, we also emphasize need for joint application of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography to determine the overall structure of the BMI1–PHC2 complex.
- ItemThe BRPF1 bromodomain is a molecular reader of di-acetyllysine(Elsevier, 2020) Obi, Juliet O.; Lubula, Mulu Y.; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Henrickson, Amy; McGuire, Kara; Evans, Chiara M.; Phillips, Margaret; Boyson, Samuel P.; Demeler, Borries; Markley, John L.; Glass, Karen C.Bromodomain-containing proteins are often part of chromatin-modifying complexes, and their activity can lead toaltered expression of genes that drive cancer, inflammation and neurological disorders in humans. Bromodomain-PHDfinger protein 1 (BRPF1) is part of the MOZ (monocytic leukemic zinc-finger protein) HAT (histone ace-tyltransferase) complex, which is associated with chromosomal translocations known to contribute to thedevelopment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). BRPF1 contains a unique combination of chromatin reader do-mains including two plant homeodomain (PHD)fingers separated by a zinc knuckle (PZP domain), a bromodo-main, and a proline-tryptophan-tryptophan-proline (PWWP) domain. BRPF1 is known to recruit the MOZ HATcomplex to chromatin by recognizing acetylated lysine residues on the N-terminal histone tail region through itsbromodomain. However, histone proteins can contain several acetylation modifications on their N-terminus, andit is unknown how additional marks influence bromodomain recruitment to chromatin. Here, we identify theBRPF1 bromodomain as a selective reader of di-acetyllysine modifications on histone H4. We used ITC assays tocharacterize the binding of di-acetylated histone ligands to the BRPF1 bromodomain and found that the domainbinds preferentially to histone peptides H4K5acK8ac and H4K5acK12ac. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC)experiments revealed that the monomeric state of the BRPF1 bromodomain coordinates di-acetylated histoneligands. NMR chemical shift perturbation studies, along with binding and mutational analyses, revealed non-canonical regions of the bromodomain-binding pocket that are important for histone tail recognition. Together,ourfindings provide critical information on how the combinatorial action of post-translational modifications canmodulate BRPF1 bromodomain binding and specificity.
- ItemA calibration disk for the correction of radial errors from chromatic abberation and rotor stretch in the Optima AUC™ analytical ultracentrifuge(Springer, 2020) Stoutjesdyk, Marielle; Henrickson, Amy; Minors, Geoff; Demeler, BorriesExperiments performed in the analytical ultracentrifuge (AUC) measure sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, as well as the partial concentration of colloidal mixtures of molecules in the solution phase. From this information, their abundance, size, molar mass, density and anisotropy can be determined. The accuracy with which these parameters can be determined depends in part on the accuracy of the radial position recordings and the boundary conditions used in the modeling of the AUC data. The AUC instrument can spin samples at speeds up to 60,000 rpm, generating forces approaching 300,000 g. Forces of this magnitude will stretch the titanium rotors used in the instrument, shifting the boundary conditions required to solve the flow equations used in the modeling of the AUC data. A second source of error is caused by the chromatic aberration resulting from imperfections in the UV–visible absorption optics. Both errors are larger than the optical resolution of currently available instrumentation. Here, we report software routines that correct these errors, aided by a new calibration disk which can be used in place of the counterbalance to provide a calibration reference for each experiment to verify proper operation of the AUC instrument. We describe laboratory methods and software routines in UltraScan that incorporate calibrations and corrections for the rotor stretch and chromatic aberration in order to support Good Manufacturing Practices for AUC data analysis.
- ItemCoordination of di-acetylated histone ligands by the ATAD2 bromodomain(MDPI, 2021) Evans, Chiara M.; Phillips, Margaret; Malone, Kiera L.; Tonelli, Marco; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Cornilescu, Claudia; Holton, Simon J.; Gorjánácz, Mátyás; Wang, Liping; Carlson, Samuel; Gay, Jamie C.; Nix, Jay C.; Demeler, Borries; Markley, John L.; Glass, Karen C.The ATPase Family, AAA domain-containing protein 2 (ATAD2) bromodomain (BRD) has a canonical bromodomain structure consisting of four -helices. ATAD2 functions as a coactivator of the androgen and estrogen receptors as well as the MYC and E2F transcription factors. ATAD2 also functions during DNA replication, recognizing newly synthesized histones. In addition, ATAD2 is shown to be up-regulated in multiple forms of cancer including breast, lung, gastric, endometrial, renal, and prostate. Furthermore, up-regulation of ATAD2 is strongly correlated with poor prognosis in many types of cancer, making the ATAD2 bromodomain an innovative target for cancer therapeutics. In this study, we describe the recognition of histone acetyllysine modifications by the ATAD2 bromodomain. Residue-specific information on the complex formed between the histone tail and the ATAD2 bromodomain, obtained through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and X-ray crystallography, illustrates key residues lining the binding pocket, which are involved in coordination of di-acetylated histone tails. Analytical ultracentrifugation, NMR relaxation data, and isothermal titration calorimetry further confirm the monomeric state of the functionally active ATAD2 bromodomain in complex with di-acetylated histone ligands. Overall, we describe histone tail recognition by ATAD2 BRD and illustrate that one acetyllysine group is primarily engaged by the conserved asparagine (N1064), the “RVF” shelf residues, and the flexible ZA loop. Coordination of a second acetyllysine group also occurs within the same binding pocket but is essentially governed by unique hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions making the di-acetyllysine histone coordination more specific than previously presumed.
- ItemCryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for betaretroviral intasome function(Nature Publishing, 2016) Ballandras-Colas, Allison; Brown, Monica; Cook, Nicola J.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Demeler, Borries; Cherepanov, Peter; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Engelman, Alan N.Retroviral integrase catalyses the integration of viral DNA into host target DNA, which is an essential step in the life cycle of all retroviruses1. Previous structural characterization of integrase–viral DNA complexes, or intasomes, from the spumavirus prototype foamy virus revealed a functional integrase tetramer2,3,4,5, and it is generally believed that intasomes derived from other retroviral genera use tetrameric integrase6,7,8,9. However, the intasomes of orthoretroviruses, which include all known pathogenic species, have not been characterized structurally. Here, using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, we determine an unexpected octameric integrase architecture for the intasome of the betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumour virus. The structure is composed of two core integrase dimers, which interact with the viral DNA ends and structurally mimic the integrase tetramer of prototype foamy virus, and two flanking integrase dimers that engage the core structure via their integrase carboxy-terminal domains. Contrary to the belief that tetrameric integrase components are sufficient to catalyse integration, the flanking integrase dimers were necessary for mouse mammary tumour virus integrase activity. The integrase octamer solves a conundrum for betaretroviruses as well as alpharetroviruses by providing critical carboxy-terminal domains to the intasome core that cannot be provided in cis because of evolutionarily restrictive catalytic core domain–carboxy-terminal domain linker regions. The octameric architecture of the intasome of mouse mammary tumour virus provides new insight into the structural basis of retroviral DNA integration.
- ItemCrystallographic structures of IlvN·Val/Ile complexes: Conformational selectivity for feedback inhibition of aceto hydroxy acid synthases(American Chemical Society, 2019) Bansal, Akanksha; Karanth, N. Megha; Demeler, Borries; Schindelin, Hermann; Sarma, Siddhartha P.Conformational factors that predicate selectivity for valine or isoleucine binding to IlvN leading to the regulation of aceto hydroxy acid synthase I (AHAS I) of Escherichia coli have been determined for the first time from high-resolution (1.9–2.43 Å) crystal structures of IlvN·Val and IlvN·Ile complexes. The valine and isoleucine ligand binding pockets are located at the dimer interface. In the IlvN·Ile complex, among residues in the binding pocket, the side chain of Cys43 is 2-fold disordered (χ1 angles of gauche– and trans). Only one conformation can be observed for the identical residue in the IlvN·Val complexes. In a reversal, the side chain of His53, located at the surface of the protein, exhibits two conformations in the IlvN·Val complex. The concerted conformational switch in the side chains of Cys43 and His53 may play an important role in the regulation of the AHAS I holoenzyme activity. A significant result is the establishment of the subunit composition in the AHAS I holoenzyme by analytical ultracentrifugation. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments have also provided important insights into the hydrodynamic properties of IlvN in the ligand-free and -bound states. The structural and biophysical data unequivocally establish the molecular basis for differential binding of the ligands to IlvN and a rationale for the resistance of IlvM to feedback inhibition by the branched-chain amino acids.
- ItemEffects of T592 phosphomimetic mutations on tetramer stability and dNTPase activity of SAMHD1 can not explain the retroviral restriction defect(Nature Publishing, 2016) Bhattacharya, Akash; Wang, Zhonghua; White, Tommy; Buffone, Cindy; Nguyen, Laura A.; Shepard, Caitlin N.; Kim, Baek; Demeler, Borries; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Ivanov, Dmitri N.SAMHD1, a dNTP triphosphohydrolase, contributes to interferon signaling and restriction of retroviral replication. SAMHD1-mediated retroviral restriction is thought to result from the depletion of cellular dNTP pools, but it remains controversial whether the dNTPase activity of SAMHD1 is sufficient for restriction. The restriction ability of SAMHD1 is regulated in cells by phosphorylation on T592. Phosphomimetic mutations of T592 are not restriction competent, but appear intact in their ability to deplete cellular dNTPs. Here we use analytical ultracentrifugation, fluorescence polarization and NMR-based enzymatic assays to investigate the impact of phosphomimetic mutations on SAMHD1 tetramerization and dNTPase activity in vitro. We find that phosphomimetic mutations affect kinetics of tetramer assembly and disassembly, but their effects on tetramerization equilibrium and dNTPase activity are insignificant. In contrast, the Y146S/Y154S dimerization-defective mutant displays a severe dNTPase defect in vitro, but is indistinguishable from WT in its ability to deplete cellular dNTP pools and to restrict HIV replication. Our data suggest that the effect of T592 phosphorylation on SAMHD1 tetramerization is not likely to explain the retroviral restriction defect and we hypothesize that enzymatic activity of SAMHD1 is subject to additional cellular regulatory mechanisms that have not yet been recapitulated in vitro.
- ItemAn engineered transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) monomer that functions as a dominant negative to block TGF-ß signaling(ASBMB Publications, 2017) Kim, Sun Kyung; Barron, Lindsey; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Petrunak, Elyse M.; Cano, Kristin E.; Thangirala, Avinash; Iskra, Brian; Brothers, Molly; Vonberg, Machell; Leal, Belinda; Richter, Blair; Kodali, Ravindra; Taylor, Alexander B.; Du, Shoucheng; Barnes, Christopher O.; Sulea, Traian; Calero, Guillermo; Hart, P. John; Hart, Matthew J.; Demeler, Borries; Hinck, Andrew P.The transforming growth factor β isoforms, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3, are small secreted homodimeric signaling proteins with essential roles in regulating the adaptive immune system and maintaining the extracellular matrix. However, dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is responsible for promoting the progression of several human diseases, including cancer and fibrosis. Despite the known importance of TGF-βs in promoting disease progression, no inhibitors have been approved for use in humans. Herein, we describe an engineered TGF-β monomer, lacking the heel helix, a structural motif essential for binding the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) but dispensable for binding the other receptor required for TGF-β signaling, the TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII), as an alternative therapeutic modality for blocking TGF-β signaling in humans. As shown through binding studies and crystallography, the engineered monomer retained the same overall structure of native TGF-β monomers and bound TβRII in an identical manner. Cell-based luciferase assays showed that the engineered monomer functioned as a dominant negative to inhibit TGF-β signaling with a Ki of 20–70 nm. Investigation of the mechanism showed that the high affinity of the engineered monomer for TβRII, coupled with its reduced ability to non-covalently dimerize and its inability to bind and recruit TβRI, enabled it to bind endogenous TβRII but prevented it from binding and recruiting TβRI to form a signaling complex. Such engineered monomers provide a new avenue to probe and manipulate TGF-β signaling and may inform similar modifications of other TGF-β family members.
- ItemFunctionality of redox-active crysteines is required for restriction of retroviral replication by SAMHD1(Cell Press, 2018) Wang, Zhonghua; Bhattacharya, Akash; White, Tommy; Buffone, Cindy; McCabe, Aine; Nguyen, Laura A.; Shepard, Caitlin N.; Pardo, Sammy; Kim, Baek; Weintraub, Susan T.; Demeler, Borries; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Ivanov, Dmitri N.SAMHD1 is a dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase)that impairs retroviral replication in a subset of non-cycling immune cells. Here we show that SAMHD1is a redox-sensitive enzyme and identify threeredox-active cysteines within the protein: C341,C350, and C522. The three cysteines reside nearone another and the allosteric nucleotide bindingsite. Mutations C341S and C522S abolish the abilityof SAMHD1 to restrict HIV replication, whereas theC350S mutant remains restriction competent. TheC522S mutation makes the protein resistant to inhibi-tion by hydrogen peroxide but has no effect onthe tetramerization-dependent dNTPase activity ofSAMHD1in vitroor on the ability of SAMHD1 todeplete cellular dNTPs. Our results reveal that enzy-matic activation of SAMHD1 via nucleotide-depen-dent tetramerization is not sufficient for the estab-lishment of the antiviral state and that retroviralrestriction depends on the ability of the protein to un-dergo redox transformations.
- ItemGeneral model for retroviral capsid pattern recognition by TRIM5 proteins(American Society for Microbiology, 2018) Wagner, Jonathan M.; Christensen, Devin E.; Bhattacharya, Akash; Dawidziak, Daria M.; Roganowicz, Marcin D.; Wan, Yueping; Pumroy, Ruth A.; Demeler, Borries; Ivanov, Dmitri N.; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Pornillos, OwenRestriction factors are intrinsic cellular defense proteins that have evolved to block microbial infections. Retroviruses such as HIV-1 are restricted by TRIM5 proteins, which recognize the viral capsid shell that surrounds, organizes, and protects the viral genome. TRIM5α uses a SPRY domain to bind capsids with low intrinsic affinity (KD of >1 mM) and therefore requires higher-order assembly into a hexagonal lattice to generate sufficient avidity for productive capsid recognition. TRIMCyp, on the other hand, binds HIV-1 capsids through a cyclophilin A domain, which has a well-defined binding site and higher affinity (KD of ∼10 μM) for isolated capsid subunits. Therefore, it has been argued that TRIMCyp proteins have dispensed with the need for higher-order assembly to function as antiviral factors. Here, we show that, consistent with its high degree of sequence similarity with TRIM5α, the TRIMCyp B-box 2 domain shares the same ability to self-associate and facilitate assembly of a TRIMCyp hexagonal lattice that can wrap about the HIV-1 capsid. We also show that under stringent experimental conditions, TRIMCyp-mediated restriction of HIV-1 is indeed dependent on higher-order assembly. Both forms of TRIM5 therefore use the same mechanism of avidity-driven capsid pattern recognition
- ItemHidden components in aqueous "Gold-144' fractionated by PAGE: high resolution orbitrap ESI-MS identifies the Gold-102 and higher all-aromatic Au-pMBA cluster compounds(American Chemical Society, 2016) Alvarez, Marcos M.; Chen, Jenny; Plascencia-Villa, German; Black, David M.; Griffiths, Wendell P.; Garzon, Ignacio L.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Demeler, Borrie; Whetten, Robert L.Experimental and theoretical evidence reveals the resilience and stability of the larger aqueous gold clusters protected with p-mercaptobenzoic acid ligands (pMBA) of composition Aun(pMBA)p or (n, p). The Au144(pMBA)60, (144, 60), or gold-144 aqueous gold cluster is considered special because of its high symmetry, abundance, and icosahedral structure as well as its many potential uses in material and biological sciences. Yet, to this date, direct confirmation of its precise composition and total structure remains elusive. Results presented here from characterization via high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry on an Orbitrap instrument confirm Au102(pMBA)44 at isotopic resolution. Further, what usually appears as a single band for (144, 60) in electrophoresis (PAGE) is shown to also contain the (130, 50), recently determined to have a truncated-decahedral structure, and a (137, 56) component in addition to the dominant (144, 60) compound of chiral-icosahedral structure. This finding is significant in that it reveals the existence of structures never before observed in all-aromatic water-soluble species while pointing out the path toward elucidation of the thermodynamic control of protected gold nanocrystal formation.
- ItemHuman DDX17 unwinds Rift Valley fever virus non-coding RNAs(MDPI, 2020) Nelson, Corey R.; Mrozowich, Tyler; Park, Sean M.; D'Souza, Simmone; Henrickson, Amy; Vigar, Justin R. J.; Wieden, Hans-Joachim; Owens, Raymond J.; Demeler, Borries; Patel, Trushar R.Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus from the Bunyaviridae family that causes high rates of mortality and morbidity in humans and ruminant animals. Previous studies indicated that DEAD-box helicase 17 (DDX17) restricts RVFV replication by recognizing two primary non-coding RNAs in the S-segment of the genome: the intergenic region (IGR) and 5′ non-coding region (NCR). However, we lack molecular insights into the direct binding of DDX17 with RVFV non-coding RNAs and information on the unwinding of both non-coding RNAs by DDX17. Therefore, we performed an extensive biophysical analysis of the DDX17 helicase domain (DDX17135–555) and RVFV non-coding RNAs, IGR and 5’ NCR. The homogeneity studies using analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that DDX17135–555, IGR, and 5’ NCR are pure. Next, we performed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments, which suggested that DDX17 and both RNAs are homogenous as well. SAXS analysis also demonstrated that DDX17 is globular to an extent, whereas the RNAs adopt an extended conformation in solution. Subsequently, microscale thermophoresis (MST) experiments were performed to investigate the direct binding of DDX17 to the non-coding RNAs. The MST experiments demonstrated that DDX17 binds with the IGR and 5’ NCR with a dissociation constant of 5.77 ± 0.15 µM and 9.85 ± 0.11 µM, respectively. As DDX17135–555 is an RNA helicase, we next determined if it could unwind IGR and NCR. We developed a helicase assay using MST and fluorescently-labeled oligos, which suggested DDX17135–555 can unwind both RNAs. Overall, our study provides direct evidence of DDX17135–555 interacting with and unwinding RVFV non-coding regions
- ItemKDM2B recruitment of the polycomb group complex, PRC1.1, requires cooperation between PCGF1 and BCORL1(Elsevier, 2016) Wong, Sarah J.; Gearhart, Micah D.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Nanyes, David R.; Ha, Daniel J.; Robinson, Angela K.; Artigas, Jason A.; Lee, Oliver J.; Demeler, Borries; Hart, P. John; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Kim, Chongwoo A.KDM2B recruits H2A-ubiquitinating activity of a non-canonical Polycomb Repression Complex 1 (PRC1.1) to CpG islands, facilitating gene repres sion. We investigated the molecular basis of recruit ment using in vitro assembly assays to identify minimal components, subcomplexes, and domains required for recruitment. A minimal four-component PRC1.1 complex can be assembled by combining two separately isolated subcomplexes: the DNA binding KDM2B/SKP1 heterodimer and the hetero dimer of BCORL1 and PCGF1, a core component of PRC1.1. The crystal structure of the KDM2B/ SKP1/BCORL1/PCGF1 complex illustrates the crucial role played by the PCGF1/BCORL1 hetero dimer. The BCORL1 PUFD domain positions resi dues preceding the RAWUL domain of PCGF1 to create an extended interface for interaction with KDM2B, which is unique to the PCGF1-containing PRC1.1 complex. The structure also suggests how KDM2B might simultaneously function in PRC1.1 and an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex and the possible molecular consequences of BCOR PUFD internal tandem duplications found in pediatric kidney and brain tumors.
- ItemMeasuring compressibility in the optima AUC™ analytical ultracentrifuge(Springer, 2020) Stoutjesdyk, Marielle; Brookes, Emre; Henrickson, Amy; Demeler, BorriesA method is described to accurately measure the compressibility of liquids using an analytical ultracentrifuge. The method makes use of very large pressure gradients, which can be generated in the analytical ultracentrifuge at high speeds to induce a maximum compression signal. Taking advantage of the new Optima AUC, which offers 10 micron radial resolution, a novel calibration centerpiece for measuring rotor stretch, and a speed-ramping procedure, even the weak compressibility of liquids like water, typically considered to be incompressible, could be detected. A model using the standard expression for the secant-average bulk modulus describing the relative compression of a liquid in the analytical ultracentrifuge is derived. The model is a function of the loading volume and the hydrostatic pressure generated in the analytical ultracentrifuge, as well as the secant-average bulk modulus. The compressibility of water and toluene were measured and the linear secant-average bulk modulus and meniscus positions were fitted. In addition to the measurement of the compressibility of liquids, applications for this method include an improved prediction of boundary conditions for multi-speed analytical ultracentrifugation experiments to better describe highly heterogeneous systems with analytical speed-ramping procedures, and the prediction of radius-dependent density variations.
- ItemMeasuring molecular interactions in solution using multi-wavelength analytical ultracentrifugation: combining spectral analysis with hydrodynamics(Portland Press, 2019) Demeler, BorriesIn 1926, the Swedish scientist Theodor Svedberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on a disperse system, and for studying the colloidal properties of proteins. This work was, to a large extent, made possible by his invention of a revolutionary tool, the analytical ultracentrifuge. These days, technological advances in hardware and computing have transformed the field of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) by enabling entirely new classes of experiments and modes of measurement unimaginable by Svedberg, making AUC once again an indispensable tool for modern biomedical research. In this article these advances and their impact on studies of interacting molecules will be discussed, with particular emphasis on a new method termed multi-wavelength analytical ultracentrifugation (MWL-AUC). Novel detectors allow us to add a second dimension to the separation of disperse and heterogeneous systems: in addition to the traditional hydrodynamic separation of colloidal mixtures, it is now possible to identify the sedimenting molecules by their spectral absorbance properties. The potential for this advance is significant for the study of a large range of systems. A further advance has occurred in data management and computational capabilities, opening doors to improved analysis methods, as well as direct networking with the instrument, facilitating data acquisition and data handling, and significant increases in data density from faster detectors with higher resolution capability.
- ItemMechanism of NanR gene repression and allosteric induction of bacterial sialic acid metabolism(Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Horne, Christoper R.; Venugopal, Hariprasad; Panjikar, Santosh; Wood, David M.; Henrickson, Amy; Brookes, Emre; North, Rachel A.; Murphy, James M.; Friemann, Rosmarie; Griffin, Michael D. W.; Ramm, Georg; Demeler, Borries; Dobson, Renwick C. J.Bacteria respond to environmental changes by inducing transcription of some genes and repressing others. Sialic acids, which coat human cell surfaces, are a nutrient source for pathogenic and commensal bacteria. The Escherichia coli GntR-type transcriptional repressor, NanR, regulates sialic acid metabolism, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that three NanR dimers bind a (GGTATA)3-repeat operator cooperatively and with high affinity. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structures reveal the DNA-binding domain is reorganized to engage DNA, while three dimers assemble in close proximity across the (GGTATA)3-repeat operator. Such an interaction allows cooperative protein-protein interactions between NanR dimers via their N-terminal extensions. The effector, N-acetylneuraminate, binds NanR and attenuates the NanR-DNA interaction. The crystal structure of NanR in complex with N-acetylneuraminate reveals a domain rearrangement upon N-acetylneuraminate binding to lock NanR in a conformation that weakens DNA binding. Our data provide a molecular basis for the regulation of bacterial sialic acid metabolism.
- ItemMolecular architecture of the antiophidic protein DM64 and its binding specificity to myotoxin II from Bothrops aasper venom(Frontiers Research Foundation, 2022) Soares, Barbara S.; Rocha, Surza Lucia G.; Bastos, Viviane A.; Lima, Diogo B.; Carvalho, Paulo C.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Demeler, Borries; Williams, Tayler L.; Arnold, Janelle; Henrickson, Amy; Jorgensen, Thomas J. D.; Souza, Tatiana A. C. B.; Perales, Jonas; Valente, Richard H.; Lomonte, Bruno; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C.DM64 is a toxin-neutralizing serum glycoprotein isolated from Didelphis aurita, an ophiophagous marsupial naturally resistant to snake envenomation. This 64 kDa antitoxin targets myotoxic phospholipases A2, which account for most local tissue damage of viperid snakebites. We investigated the noncovalent complex formed between native DM64 and myotoxin II, a myotoxic phospholipase-like protein from Bothrops asper venom. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and size exclusion chromatography indicated that DM64 is monomeric in solution and binds equimolar amounts of the toxin. Attempts to crystallize native DM64 for X-ray diffraction were unsuccessful. Obtaining recombinant protein to pursue structural studies was also challenging. Classical molecular modeling techniques were impaired by the lack of templates with more than 25% sequence identity with DM64. An integrative structural biology approach was then applied to generate a three-dimensional model of the inhibitor bound to myotoxin II. I-TASSER individually modeled the five immunoglobulin-like domains of DM64. Distance constraints generated by cross-linking mass spectrometry of the complex guided the docking of DM64 domains to the crystal structure of myotoxin II, using Rosetta. AUC, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), molecular modeling, and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the DM64-myotoxin II complex is structured, shows flexibility, and has an anisotropic shape. Inter-protein cross-links and limited hydrolysis analyses shed light on the inhibitor’s regions involved with toxin interaction, revealing the critical participation of the first, third, and fifth domains of DM64. Our data showed that the fifth domain of DM64 binds to myotoxin II amino-terminal and beta-wing regions. The third domain of the inhibitor acts in a complementary way to the fifth domain. Their binding to these toxin regions presumably precludes dimerization, thus interfering with toxicity, which is related to the quaternary structure of the toxin. The first domain of DM64 interacts with the functional site of the toxin putatively associated with membrane anchorage. We propose that both mechanisms concur to inhibit myotoxin II toxicity by DM64 binding. The present topological characterization of this toxin-antitoxin complex constitutes an essential step toward the rational design of novel peptide-based antivenom therapies targeting snake venom myotoxins.
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