OPUS: Open Ulethbridge Scholarship

Open ULeth Scholarship (OPUS) is the University of Lethbridge's open access research repository. It contains a collection of materials related to research and teaching produced by the academic community.

Self-archiving your research in OPUS is one way to meet Open Access policies of granting agencies. It is important to retain your final, post-peer-reviewed drafts for submission to OPUS, as this is often the only version publishers will allow to be archived. Click here for information on the U of L Open Access Policy.

Check here for more information about OPUS.

Deposit your Research


Recent Submissions

Accurate crystal structures of C12H9CN, C12H8(CN)2, and C16H11CN valence isomers using nonspherical atomic scattering factors
(RSC Publishing, 2022) Hill, Nathan D. D.; Lilienthal, Elaura; Bender, Christopher O.; Boeré, René T.
Fourteen crystal structures, mostly from good-quality datasets but including some marginal and twinned exemplars, from a series of novel polycyclic benzo- and naphtho-fused organic nitriles are presented and accurately described, including some related structures of a bromo-substituted and partially hydrogenated analogues. These structures represent a considerable increase in the number of published structures within their archetypes. This work highlights the significant advancement in structural refinement software proffered by NoSpherA2, which enables Hirshfeld Atom Refinement (HAR) of the structures within Olex2 v1.5. This results in the determination of C–H bond lengths with near to neutron diffraction accuracies at far lower experimental cost, and with an average improvement in C–C bond precision of 42% compared to Independent Atom Model refinements. H-atoms (apart from disordered components) refined well with anisotropic displacement parameters. Nonclassical H-bonding (C–H···N≡C) in this series is analyzed, and dipolar nitrile–nitrile interactions (C≡N···C≡N) in three major motifs described by (Wood, P. A. Acta Cryst. B, 2008, 64, 393−396) are found in 9 out of 13 nitrile-containing compounds of this series, a much higher proportion than the global average of 21% of nitrile-containing compounds. The HAR/NoSpherA2 approach shows increasing benefits with better data quality without apparent discontinuities.
Chalcogen controlled redox behaviour in peri-substituted S, Se and Te naphthalene derivatives
(RSC Publishing, 2022) Roemmele, Tracey L.; Knight, Fergus R.; Crawford, Ellis; Robertson, Stuart D.; Bode, Bela E.; Bühl, MIchael; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Woollins, J. Derek; Boeré, René T.
Cyclic and square wave voltammetry of (PhE)2peri-disubstituted naphthalene[1,8-cd]dichalcoganyls and acenaphthene[5,6-diyl]dichalcoganyls (E = S, Se, Te, 12 compounds) is reported. Mixed (E1 = Se, Te; E2 = Br, I) naphthalene[1,8-cd]halochalcoganyls were also investigated, as well as an exemplar bearing two PhS([double bond, length as m-dash]O) groups and another bearing one PhSe and one Ph2P([double bond, length as m-dash]S) substituent. The voltammetry, in CH2Cl2/0.4 M [nBu4N][PF6] at both platinum and glassy carbon macro-disk working electrodes, shows two sequential chemically reversible and electrochemically quasi-reversible oxidation processes, and the lack of accessible reductions. Additional oxidations above +1.5 V vs. Fc+/0 have not been investigated in detail. In situ and ex situ EPR spectroscopy conclusively demonstrate that both anodic processes are 1e transfers; persistent radical cations could be generated for all the dichalcoganyls except when E1 = E2 = Te; for the latter case thermally stable dications are generated instead. The complex possible solution conformations of these compounds in 0, +1 and +2 charge states were modelled with DFT at the B3LYP-D3(BJ)/6-31+G(d) level of theory in a CH2Cl2 PCM continuum solution model and adiabatic ionisation energies calculated, which correlate linearly (R = 0.88) with the Ea1p values. Crystal structures of four solvolysis and hydrolysis products of the ditellurium dications are reported and were modelled computationally. Interpretative comparisons to unsubstituted naphthalene[1,8-cd]dichalcogenoles are reported and the crystal structure of naphtho(1,8-cd)(1,2-dithiolium) tetrafluoroborate has been obtained. This is the first structure reported for any salt of this cation radical. Electron transfer mechanisms of both the (PhE)2 and E2peri-disubstituted naphthalene series are correlated using a redox molecular orbital interpretative framework.
Witnessed incivility: consequences and moderating factors
(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dhillon School of Business, 2024) Emegokwue, Tsemaye Patience; University of Lethbridge. Dhillon School of Business; Stuart-Edwards, Anastasia
This study examined the relationship between witnessed incivility and workplace outcomes (emotional exhaustion, organizational citizenship behavior, and work engagement) by drawing on the Conservation Resource Theory (COR) and the Job Demands-Resources Theory (JD-R Model). Furthermore, this study sheds light on mindfulness as a moderating factor and the impact of power distance on how witnessed incivility is perceived and interpreted. Data was collected using a time-lagged survey design. A total of 202 surveys were completed amongst workers and supervisors across various industries in Nigeria and Canada. Findings from the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between witnessed incivility and two workplace outcomes (emotional exhaustion and OCB-O). While power distance did not moderate the relationship between witnessed incivility and workplace outcomes, it was observed that country as a moderator, moderated the relationship between witnessed incivility and OCB-O for participants in Nigeria. Also, mindfulness moderated the relationship between witnessed incivility and emotional exhaustion. More studies are required for a broader insight into the witnessed incivility literature.
Volunteer retention research report: nonprofit professionals' version
(2024) Wymer, Walter; Najev Cacija, Ljiljana
We developed this study to add to the stream of scholarly research literature on volunteer retention. We asked many Canadian nonprofit organizations to participate in this study. We tried to include a variety of different types of nonprofit organizations, from across the country, to have an inclusive and representative sample. While we were primarily interested in influences on volunteer retention, we understood that committed volunteers also support their organizations in addition to volunteering. Therefore, in additional to investigating influences on volunteer retention, we also examined how these factors might influence other types of support intentions like donations, bequests, positive word-of-mouth referrals, an helping the organization recruit additional volunteers. We developed and tested two models. One model examined organizational influences on volunteer behavioral intentions. The second model examined experiential influences, meaning factors pertaining to the volunteering experience. With respect to organizational influences on volunteer retention and other support intentions, we found that brand strength had an important and broad effect on our outcome variables. Organizational transparency was also influential with respect to donation and bequest intentions. Other influences are presented later in this report. With respect to experiential influences on volunteer retention and other support intentions, we found that feeling valued was particularly important. Feeling valued not only had a direct effect on our outcome variables but also exerted an indirect effect through its influence on volunteer satisfaction. Perceived usefulness had a positive influence on feeling valued. We also found that social connectedness and value congruence were positive influencers. In this report, we present our methods and procedures. We present our variable definitions and how they were measured in our questionnaire. We present our significant findings and discuss managerial implications of our findings.