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- ItemAspheric solute ions moderate gold nanoparticle interactions in an aqueous solution: an optimal way to reversibly concentrate functionalized nanoparticles(American Chemical Society, 2015) Villarreal, Oscar D.; Chen, Liao Y.; Whetten, Robert L.; Demeler, BorriesNanometer-sized gold particles (AuNPs) are of peculiar interest because their behaviors in an aqueous solution are sensitive to changes in environmental factors including the size and shape of the solute ions. In order to determine these important characteristics, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on the icosahedral Au144 nanoparticles each coated with a homogeneous set of 60 thiolates (4-mercaptobenzoate, pMBA) in eight aqueous solutions having ions of varying sizes and shapes (Na+, K+, tetramethylamonium cation TMA+, tris-ammonium cation TRS+, Cl–, and OH–). For each solution, we computed the reversible work (potential of mean of force) to bring two nanoparticles together as a function of their separation distance. We found that the behavior of pMBA protected Au144 nanoparticles can be readily modulated by tuning their aqueous environmental factors (pH and solute ion combinations). We examined the atomistic details on how the sizes and shapes of solute ions quantitatively factor in the definitive characteristics of nanoparticle–environment and nanoparticle–nanoparticle interactions. We predict that tuning the concentrations of nonspherical composite ions such as TRS+ in an aqueous solution of AuNPs be an effective means to modulate the aggregation propensity desired in biomedical and other applications of small charged nanoparticles.
- ItemStructural characterization of the extracellular domain of CASPR2 and insights into its association with the novel ligand Contactin1(ASBMB Publications, 2015) Rubio-Marrero, Eva N.; Vincelli, Gabriele; Jeffries, Cy M.; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Pakos, Irene S.; Ranaivoson, Fanomezana M.; von Daake, Sventja; Demeler, Borries; De Jaco, Antonella; Perkins, Guy; Ellisman, Mark H.; Trewhella, Jill; Comoletti, DavideContactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) encodes for CASPR2, a multidomain single transmembrane protein belonging to the neurexin superfamily that has been implicated in a broad range of human phenotypes including autism and language impairment. Using a combination of biophysical techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, single particle electron microscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation, and bio-layer interferometry, we present novel structural and functional data that relate the architecture of the extracellular domain of CASPR2 to a previously unknown ligand, Contactin1 (CNTN1). Structurally, CASPR2 is highly glycosylated and has an overall compact architecture. Functionally, we show that CASPR2 associates with micromolar affinity with CNTN1 but, under the same conditions, it does not interact with any of the other members of the contactin family. Moreover, by using dissociated hippocampal neurons we show that microbeads loaded with CASPR2, but not with a deletion mutant, co-localize with transfected CNTN1, suggesting that CNTN1 is an endogenous ligand for CASPR2. These data provide novel insights into the structure and function of CASPR2, suggesting a complex role of CASPR2 in the nervous system.
- ItemHidden components in aqueous "Gold-144' fractionated by PAGE: high resolution orbitrap ESI-MS identifies the Gold-102 and higher all-aromatic Au-pMBA cluster compounds(American Chemical Society, 2016) Alvarez, Marcos M.; Chen, Jenny; Plascencia-Villa, German; Black, David M.; Griffiths, Wendell P.; Garzon, Ignacio L.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Demeler, Borrie; Whetten, Robert L.Experimental and theoretical evidence reveals the resilience and stability of the larger aqueous gold clusters protected with p-mercaptobenzoic acid ligands (pMBA) of composition Aun(pMBA)p or (n, p). The Au144(pMBA)60, (144, 60), or gold-144 aqueous gold cluster is considered special because of its high symmetry, abundance, and icosahedral structure as well as its many potential uses in material and biological sciences. Yet, to this date, direct confirmation of its precise composition and total structure remains elusive. Results presented here from characterization via high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry on an Orbitrap instrument confirm Au102(pMBA)44 at isotopic resolution. Further, what usually appears as a single band for (144, 60) in electrophoresis (PAGE) is shown to also contain the (130, 50), recently determined to have a truncated-decahedral structure, and a (137, 56) component in addition to the dominant (144, 60) compound of chiral-icosahedral structure. This finding is significant in that it reveals the existence of structures never before observed in all-aromatic water-soluble species while pointing out the path toward elucidation of the thermodynamic control of protected gold nanocrystal formation.
- ItemSimultaneous identification of spectral properties and sizes of multiple particles in solution with subnanometer resolution(Wiley, 2016) Karabudak, Engin; Brookes, Emre; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmuller, Alexander; Walter, Johannes; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demeler, Borries; Colfen, HelmutWe report an unsurpassed solution characterization technique based on analytical ultracentrifugation, which demonstrates exceptional potential for resolving particle sizes in solution with sub-nm resolution. We achieve this improvement in resolution by simultaneously measuring UV/Vis spectra while hydrodynamically separating individual components in the mixture. By equipping an analytical ultracentrifuge with a novel multi-wavelength detector, we are adding a new spectral discovery dimension to traditional hydrodynamic characterization, and amplify the information obtained by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the power of this technique by characterizing unpurified CdTe nanoparticle samples, avoiding tedious and often impossible purification and fractionation of nanoparticles into apparently monodisperse fractions. With this approach, we have for the first time identified the pure spectral properties and band-gap positions of discrete species present in the CdTe mixture.
- ItemBMI1 regulates PRC1 architecture and activity through homo- and hetero-oligomerization(Nature Publishing, 2016) Gray, Felicia; Cho, Hyo Je; Shukla, Shirish; He, Shihan; Harris, Ashley; Boytsov, Bohdan; Jaremko, Lukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Demeler, Borries; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Grembecka, Jolanta; Cierpicki, TomaszBMI1 is a core component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and emerging data support a role of BMI1 in cancer. The central domain of BMI1 is involved in protein–protein interactions and is essential for its oncogenic activity. Here, we present the structure of BMI1 bound to the polyhomeotic protein PHC2 illustrating that the central domain of BMI1 adopts an ubiquitin-like (UBL) fold and binds PHC2 in a β-hairpin conformation. Unexpectedly, we find that the UBL domain is involved in homo-oligomerization of BMI1. We demonstrate that both the interaction of BMI1 with polyhomeotic proteins and homo-oligomerization via UBL domain are necessary for H2A ubiquitination activity of PRC1 and for clonogenic potential of U2OS cells. Here, we also emphasize need for joint application of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography to determine the overall structure of the BMI1–PHC2 complex.
- ItemEffects of T592 phosphomimetic mutations on tetramer stability and dNTPase activity of SAMHD1 can not explain the retroviral restriction defect(Nature Publishing, 2016) Bhattacharya, Akash; Wang, Zhonghua; White, Tommy; Buffone, Cindy; Nguyen, Laura A.; Shepard, Caitlin N.; Kim, Baek; Demeler, Borries; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Ivanov, Dmitri N.SAMHD1, a dNTP triphosphohydrolase, contributes to interferon signaling and restriction of retroviral replication. SAMHD1-mediated retroviral restriction is thought to result from the depletion of cellular dNTP pools, but it remains controversial whether the dNTPase activity of SAMHD1 is sufficient for restriction. The restriction ability of SAMHD1 is regulated in cells by phosphorylation on T592. Phosphomimetic mutations of T592 are not restriction competent, but appear intact in their ability to deplete cellular dNTPs. Here we use analytical ultracentrifugation, fluorescence polarization and NMR-based enzymatic assays to investigate the impact of phosphomimetic mutations on SAMHD1 tetramerization and dNTPase activity in vitro. We find that phosphomimetic mutations affect kinetics of tetramer assembly and disassembly, but their effects on tetramerization equilibrium and dNTPase activity are insignificant. In contrast, the Y146S/Y154S dimerization-defective mutant displays a severe dNTPase defect in vitro, but is indistinguishable from WT in its ability to deplete cellular dNTP pools and to restrict HIV replication. Our data suggest that the effect of T592 phosphorylation on SAMHD1 tetramerization is not likely to explain the retroviral restriction defect and we hypothesize that enzymatic activity of SAMHD1 is subject to additional cellular regulatory mechanisms that have not yet been recapitulated in vitro.
- ItemKDM2B recruitment of the polycomb group complex, PRC1.1, requires cooperation between PCGF1 and BCORL1(Elsevier, 2016) Wong, Sarah J.; Gearhart, Micah D.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Nanyes, David R.; Ha, Daniel J.; Robinson, Angela K.; Artigas, Jason A.; Lee, Oliver J.; Demeler, Borries; Hart, P. John; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Kim, Chongwoo A.KDM2B recruits H2A-ubiquitinating activity of a non-canonical Polycomb Repression Complex 1 (PRC1.1) to CpG islands, facilitating gene repres sion. We investigated the molecular basis of recruit ment using in vitro assembly assays to identify minimal components, subcomplexes, and domains required for recruitment. A minimal four-component PRC1.1 complex can be assembled by combining two separately isolated subcomplexes: the DNA binding KDM2B/SKP1 heterodimer and the hetero dimer of BCORL1 and PCGF1, a core component of PRC1.1. The crystal structure of the KDM2B/ SKP1/BCORL1/PCGF1 complex illustrates the crucial role played by the PCGF1/BCORL1 hetero dimer. The BCORL1 PUFD domain positions resi dues preceding the RAWUL domain of PCGF1 to create an extended interface for interaction with KDM2B, which is unique to the PCGF1-containing PRC1.1 complex. The structure also suggests how KDM2B might simultaneously function in PRC1.1 and an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex and the possible molecular consequences of BCOR PUFD internal tandem duplications found in pediatric kidney and brain tumors.
- ItemCryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for betaretroviral intasome function(Nature Publishing, 2016) Ballandras-Colas, Allison; Brown, Monica; Cook, Nicola J.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Demeler, Borries; Cherepanov, Peter; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Engelman, Alan N.Retroviral integrase catalyses the integration of viral DNA into host target DNA, which is an essential step in the life cycle of all retroviruses1. Previous structural characterization of integrase–viral DNA complexes, or intasomes, from the spumavirus prototype foamy virus revealed a functional integrase tetramer2,3,4,5, and it is generally believed that intasomes derived from other retroviral genera use tetrameric integrase6,7,8,9. However, the intasomes of orthoretroviruses, which include all known pathogenic species, have not been characterized structurally. Here, using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, we determine an unexpected octameric integrase architecture for the intasome of the betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumour virus. The structure is composed of two core integrase dimers, which interact with the viral DNA ends and structurally mimic the integrase tetramer of prototype foamy virus, and two flanking integrase dimers that engage the core structure via their integrase carboxy-terminal domains. Contrary to the belief that tetrameric integrase components are sufficient to catalyse integration, the flanking integrase dimers were necessary for mouse mammary tumour virus integrase activity. The integrase octamer solves a conundrum for betaretroviruses as well as alpharetroviruses by providing critical carboxy-terminal domains to the intasome core that cannot be provided in cis because of evolutionarily restrictive catalytic core domain–carboxy-terminal domain linker regions. The octameric architecture of the intasome of mouse mammary tumour virus provides new insight into the structural basis of retroviral DNA integration.
- ItemA new mode of SAM domain mediated oligomerization observed in the CASKIN2 neuronal scaffolding protein(BioMed Central, 2016) Smirnova, Ekaterina; Kwan, Jamie J.; Siu, Ryan; Gao, Xin; Zoidl, Georg; Demeler, Borries; Saridakis, Vivian; Donaldson, Logan W.CASKIN2 is a homolog of CASKIN1, a scaffolding protein that participates in a signaling network with CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase). Despite a high level of homology between CASKIN2 and CASKIN1, CASKIN2 cannot bind CASK due to the absence of a CASK Interaction Domain and consequently, may have evolved undiscovered structural and functional distinctions. Results We demonstrate that the crystal structure of the Sterile Alpha Motif (SAM) domain tandem (SAM1-SAM2) oligomer from CASKIN2 is different than CASKIN1, with the minimal repeating unit being a dimer, rather than a monomer. Analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity methods revealed differences in monomer/dimer equilibria across a range of concentrations and ionic strengths for the wild type CASKIN2 SAM tandem and a structure-directed double mutant that could not oligomerize. Further distinguishing CASKIN2 from CASKIN1, EGFP-tagged SAM tandem proteins expressed in Neuro2a cells produced punctae that were distinct both in shape and size. Conclusions This study illustrates a new way in which neuronal SAM domains can assemble into large macromolecular assemblies that might concentrate and amplify synaptic responses.
- Item2D analysis of polydisperse core-shell nanoparticles using analytical ultracentrifugation(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017) Walter, Johannes; Gorbet, Gary E.; Akdas, Tugce; Segets, Doris; Demeler, Borries; Peukert, WolfgangAccurate knowledge of the size, density and composition of nanoparticles (NPs) is of major importance for their applications. In this work the hydrodynamic characterization of polydisperse core–shell NPs by means of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is addressed. AUC is one of the most accurate techniques for the characterization of NPs in the liquid phase because it can resolve particle size distributions (PSDs) with unrivaled resolution and detail. Small NPs have to be considered as core–shell systems when dispersed in a liquid since a solvation layer and a stabilizer shell will significantly contribute to the particle's hydrodynamic diameter and effective density. AUC measures the sedimentation and diffusion transport of the analytes, which are affected by the core–shell compositional properties. This work demonstrates that polydisperse and thus widely distributed NPs pose significant challenges for current state-of-the-art data evaluation methods. The existing methods either have insufficient resolution or do not correctly reproduce the core–shell properties. First, we investigate the performance of different data evaluation models by means of simulated data. Then, we propose a new methodology to address the core–shell properties of NPs. This method is based on the parametrically constrained spectrum analysis and offers complete access to the size and effective density of polydisperse NPs. Our study is complemented using experimental data derived for ZnO and CuInS2 NPs, which do not have a monodisperse PSD. For the first time, the size and effective density of such structures could be resolved with high resolution by means of a two-dimensional AUC analysis approach.
- ItemAn engineered transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) monomer that functions as a dominant negative to block TGF-ß signaling(ASBMB Publications, 2017) Kim, Sun Kyung; Barron, Lindsey; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Petrunak, Elyse M.; Cano, Kristin E.; Thangirala, Avinash; Iskra, Brian; Brothers, Molly; Vonberg, Machell; Leal, Belinda; Richter, Blair; Kodali, Ravindra; Taylor, Alexander B.; Du, Shoucheng; Barnes, Christopher O.; Sulea, Traian; Calero, Guillermo; Hart, P. John; Hart, Matthew J.; Demeler, Borries; Hinck, Andrew P.The transforming growth factor β isoforms, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3, are small secreted homodimeric signaling proteins with essential roles in regulating the adaptive immune system and maintaining the extracellular matrix. However, dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is responsible for promoting the progression of several human diseases, including cancer and fibrosis. Despite the known importance of TGF-βs in promoting disease progression, no inhibitors have been approved for use in humans. Herein, we describe an engineered TGF-β monomer, lacking the heel helix, a structural motif essential for binding the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) but dispensable for binding the other receptor required for TGF-β signaling, the TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII), as an alternative therapeutic modality for blocking TGF-β signaling in humans. As shown through binding studies and crystallography, the engineered monomer retained the same overall structure of native TGF-β monomers and bound TβRII in an identical manner. Cell-based luciferase assays showed that the engineered monomer functioned as a dominant negative to inhibit TGF-β signaling with a Ki of 20–70 nm. Investigation of the mechanism showed that the high affinity of the engineered monomer for TβRII, coupled with its reduced ability to non-covalently dimerize and its inability to bind and recruit TβRI, enabled it to bind endogenous TβRII but prevented it from binding and recruiting TβRI to form a signaling complex. Such engineered monomers provide a new avenue to probe and manipulate TGF-β signaling and may inform similar modifications of other TGF-β family members.
- ItemSpectral and hydrodynamic analysis of West Nile virus RNA–protein interactions by multiwavelength sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge(American Chemical Society, 2017) Zhang, Jin; Pearson, Joseph Z.; Gorbet, Gary E.; Cölfen, Helmut; Germann, Markus W.; Brinton, Margo A.; Demeler, BorriesInteractions between nucleic acids and proteins are critical for many cellular processes, and their study is of utmost importance to many areas of biochemistry, cellular biology, and virology. Here, we introduce a new analytical method based on sedimentation velocity (SV) analytical ultracentrifugation, in combination with a novel multiwavelength detector to characterize such interactions. We identified the stoichiometry and molar mass of a complex formed during the interaction of a West Nile virus RNA stem loop structure with the human T cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 related protein. SV has long been proven as a powerful technique for studying dynamic assembly processes under physiological conditions in solution. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, how the new multiwavelength technology can be exploited to study protein–RNA interactions, and show how the spectral information derived from the new detector complements the traditional hydrodynamic information from analytical ultracentrifugation. Our method allows the protein and nucleic acid signals to be separated by spectral decomposition such that sedimentation information from each individual species, including any complexes, can be clearly identified based on their spectral signatures. The method presented here extends to any interacting system where the interaction partners are spectrally separable.
- ItemPih1p-Tah1p puts a lid on hexameric AAA+ ATPases Rvb1/2p(Cell Press, 2017) Tian, Shaoxiong; Yu, Ge; He, Huan; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Peilu; Marshall, Alan G.; Demeler, Borries; Stagg, Scott M.; Li, HongThe Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) R2TP complex affords an Hsp90-mediated and nucleotide-driven chaperone activity to proteins of small ribonucleoprotein particles (snoRNPs). The current lack of structural information on the ScR2TP complex, however, prevents a mechanistic understanding of this biological process. We characterized the structure of the ScR2TP complex made up of two AAA+ ATPases, Rvb1/2p, and two Hsp90 binding proteins, Tah1p and Pih1p, and its interaction with the snoRNP protein Nop58p by a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation, isothermal titration calorimetry, chemical crosslinking, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and cryoelectron microscopy methods. We find that Pih1p-Tah1p interacts with Rvb1/2p cooperatively through the nucleotide-sensitive domain of Rvb1/2p. Nop58p further binds Pih1p-Tahp1 on top of the dome-shaped R2TP. Consequently, nucleotide binding releases Pih1p-Tah1p from Rvb1/2p, which offers a mechanism for nucleotide-driven binding and release of snoRNP intermediates.
- ItemStructure of pentameric virion-associated fiber with a potential role in Orsay virus entry to host cells(Public Library of Science, 2017) Fan, Yanlin; Guo, Yusong R.; Yuan, Wang; Zhou, Ying; Holt, Matthew V.; Wang, Tao; Demeler, Borries; Young, Nicolas L.; Zhong, Weiwei; Tao, Yizhi J.Despite the wide use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, the first virus naturally infecting this organism was not discovered until six years ago. The Orsay virus and its related nematode viruses have a positive-sense RNA genome, encoding three proteins: CP, RdRP, and a novel δ protein that shares no homology with any other proteins. δ can be expressed either as a free δ or a CP-δ fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift, but the structure and function of both δ and CP-δ remain unknown. Using a combination of electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, computational and biophysical analyses, here we show that the Orsay δ protein forms a ~420-Å long, pentameric fiber with an N-terminal α-helical bundle, a β-stranded filament in the middle, and a C-terminal head domain. The pentameric nature of the δ fiber has been independently confirmed by both mass spectrometry and analytical ultracentrifugation. Recombinant Orsay capsid containing CP-δ shows protruding long fibers with globular heads at the distal end. Mutant viruses with disrupted CP-δ fibers were generated by organism-based reverse genetics. These viruses were found to be either non-viable or with poor infectivity according to phenotypic and qRT-PCR analyses. Furthermore, addition of purified δ proteins to worm culture greatly reduced Orsay infectivity in a sequence-specific manner. Based on the structure resemblance between the Orsay CP-δ fiber and the fibers from reovirus and adenovirus, we propose that CP-δ functions as a cell attachment protein to mediate Orsay entry into worm intestine cells.
- ItemMulti‑speed sedimentation velocity implementation in UltraScan‑III(Springer, 2018) Gorbet, Gary E.; Mohapatra, Subhashree; Demeler, BorriesA framework for the global analysis of multi-speed analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments is presented. We discuss extensions to the adaptive space–time finite element fitting methods implemented in UltraScan-III to model sedimentation velocity experiments where a single run is performed at multiple rotor speeds, and describe extensions in the optimization routines used for fitting experimental data collected at arbitrary multi-speed profiles. Our implementa- tion considers factors such as speed dependent rotor stretching, the resulting radial shifting of the finite element solution’s boundary conditions, and changes in the associated time-invariant noise. We also address the calculation of acceleration rates and acceleration zones from existing radial acceleration and time records, as well as utilization of the time state object available at high temporal resolution from the new Beckman Optima AUC instrument. Analysis methods in UltraScan-III support unconstrained models that extract reliable information for both the sedimentation and the diffusion coefficients. These methods do not rely on any assumptions and allow for arbitrary variations in both sedimentation and diffusion transport. We have adapted these routines for the multi-speed case, and developed optimized and general grid based fitting methods to handle changes in the information content of the simulation matrix for different speed steps. New graphical simulation tools are presented that assist the investigator to estimate suitable grid metrics and evaluate information content based on edit profiles for individual experiments.
- ItemMulti-wavelength analytical ultracentrifugation of human serum albumin complexed with porphyrin(Springer, 2018) Johnson, Courtney N.; Gorbet, Gary E.; Ramsower, Heidi; Urquidi, Julio; Brancaleon, Lorenzo; Demeler, BorriesThe new Beckman Coulter Optima AUC instrument, which features multi-wavelength detection that couples the hydro- dynamic separation of colloidal mixtures to spectral deconvolution of interacting and non-interacting solutes present in a mixture, was used to analyze the composition of human serum albumin (HSA) bound to metallo-protoporphyrin. We present new methods implemented in UltraScan that permit Optima AUC-derived multi-wavelength data to be spectrally decomposed in the same fashion as has been made possible for the Cölfen detector earlier. We demonstrate this approach by spectrally separating sedimentation velocity experimental data from mixtures of apo-HSA and HSA complexed to dif- ferent metallo-protoporphyrins. We further demonstrate how multi-wavelength AUC can accurately recover percentages of metallo-protoporphyrin-bound HSA and apo-HSA from mixtures and how multi-wavelength AUC permits the calculation of molar extinction coefficients for porphyrins bound to HSA. The presented method has broad applicability to other complex systems where mixtures of molecules with different spectral properties need to be characterized.
- ItemMulti-speed sedimentation velocity simulations with UltraScan-III(Springer, 2018) Williams, Taylor L.; Gorbet, Gary E.; Demeler, BorriesA framework for the global analysis of multi-speed analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments is presented. We discuss extensions to the adaptive space–time finite element fitting methods implemented in UltraScan-III to model sedimentation velocity experiments where a single run is performed at multiple rotor speeds, and describe extensions in the optimization routines used for fitting experimental data collected at arbitrary multi-speed profiles. Our implementation considers factors such as speed dependent rotor stretching, the resulting radial shifting of the finite element solution’s boundary conditions, and changes in the associated time-invariant noise. We also address the calculation of acceleration rates and acceleration zones from existing radial acceleration and time records, as well as utilization of the time state object available at high temporal resolution from the new Beckman Optima AUC instrument. Analysis methods in UltraScan-III support unconstrained models that extract reliable information for both the sedimentation and the diffusion coefficients. These methods do not rely on any assumptions and allow for arbitrary variations in both sedimentation and diffusion transport. We have adapted these routines for the multi-speed case, and developed optimized and general grid based fitting methods to handle changes in the information content of the simulation matrix for different speed steps. New graphical simulation tools are presented that assist the investigator to estimate suitable grid metrics and evaluate information content based on edit profiles for individual experiments.
- ItemFunctionality of redox-active crysteines is required for restriction of retroviral replication by SAMHD1(Cell Press, 2018) Wang, Zhonghua; Bhattacharya, Akash; White, Tommy; Buffone, Cindy; McCabe, Aine; Nguyen, Laura A.; Shepard, Caitlin N.; Pardo, Sammy; Kim, Baek; Weintraub, Susan T.; Demeler, Borries; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Ivanov, Dmitri N.SAMHD1 is a dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase)that impairs retroviral replication in a subset of non-cycling immune cells. Here we show that SAMHD1is a redox-sensitive enzyme and identify threeredox-active cysteines within the protein: C341,C350, and C522. The three cysteines reside nearone another and the allosteric nucleotide bindingsite. Mutations C341S and C522S abolish the abilityof SAMHD1 to restrict HIV replication, whereas theC350S mutant remains restriction competent. TheC522S mutation makes the protein resistant to inhibi-tion by hydrogen peroxide but has no effect onthe tetramerization-dependent dNTPase activity ofSAMHD1in vitroor on the ability of SAMHD1 todeplete cellular dNTPs. Our results reveal that enzy-matic activation of SAMHD1 via nucleotide-depen-dent tetramerization is not sufficient for the estab-lishment of the antiviral state and that retroviralrestriction depends on the ability of the protein to un-dergo redox transformations.
- ItemTetrahedral (T) closed-shell cluster of 29 silver atoms & 12 lipoate ligands, [Ag29(R-a-LA)12](3-): antibacterial and antifungal activity(American Chemical Society, 2018) Lopez, Priscilla; Lara, Humberto H.; Mullins, Sean M.; Black, David M.; Ramsower, Heidi M.; Alvarez, Marcos M.; Williams, Tayler L.; Lopez-Lozano, Xochitl; Weissker, Hans-Christian; Garcia, A. Patricio; Garzon, Ignacio L.; Demeler, Borries; Lopez-Ribot, Jose Luis; Yacaman, Miguel J.; Whetten, Robert L.Here we report on the identification and applications of an aqueous 29-atom silver cluster stabilized with 12 lipoate ligands, i.e. Ag29(R-α–LA)12 or (29,12), wherein R-α–LA = R-α-lipoic acid, a natural dithiolate. Its uniformity is checked by HPLC-ESI-MS and analytical ultracentrifugation, which confirms its small dimension (∼3 nm hydrodynamic diameter). For the first time, this cluster has been detected intact via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, allowing one to confirm its composition, its [3-] charge-state, and the 8-electron shell configuration of its metallic silver core. Its electronic structure and bonding, including T-symmetry and profound chirality in the outer shell, have been analyzed by DFT quantum-chemical calculations, starting from the known structure of a nonaqueous homologue. The cluster is effective against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (MRSA) at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.6 mg-Ag/mL. A preformed Candida albicans fungal biofilm, impermeable to other antifungal agents, was also inhibited by aqueous solutions of this cluster, in a dose–response manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.94 mg-Ag/mL. Scanning electron micrographs showed the post-treatment ultrastructural changes on both MRSA and C. albicans that are characteristic of those displayed after treatment by larger silver nanoparticles.
- ItemRepurposing triphenylmethane dyes to bind to trimers derived from Aß(American Chemical Society, 2018) Salveson, Patrick J.; Haerianardakani, Sepehr; Thuy-Boun, Alexander; Yoo, Stan; Kreutzer, Adam G.; Demeler, Borries; Nowick, James S.Soluble oligomers of the β-amyloid peptide, Aβ, are associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Although many small molecules bind to these assemblies, the details of how these molecules interact with Aβ oligomers remain unknown. This paper reports that crystal violet, and other C3 symmetric triphenylmethane dyes, bind to C3 symmetric trimers derived from Aβ17–36. Binding changes the color of the dyes from purple to blue, and causes them to fluoresce red when irradiated with green light. Job plot and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments reveal that two trimers complex with one dye molecule. Studies with several triphenylmethane dyes reveal that three N,N-dialkylamino substituents are required for complexation. Several mutant trimers, in which Phe19, Phe20, and Ile31 were mutated to cyclohexylalanine, valine, and cyclohexylglycine, were prepared to probe the triphenylmethane dye binding site. Size exclusion chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and X-ray crystallographic studies demonstrate that these mutations do not impact the structure or assembly of the triangular trimer. Fluorescence spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments reveal that the dye packs against an aromatic surface formed by the Phe20 side chains and is clasped by the Ile31 side chains. Docking and molecular modeling provide a working model of the complex in which the triphenylmethane dye is sandwiched between two triangular trimers. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the X-ray crystallographic structures of triangular trimers derived from Aβ can be used to guide the discovery of ligands that bind to soluble oligomers derived from Aβ.
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