Browsing University of Lethbridge Theses by Title
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- Item1H NMR metabolomics of stress(Lethbridge, Alta : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Neuroscience, 2016) Kiss, Douglas A.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.Metabolomics provides a method to study the dynamics of cellular function by adopting a systems biology approach to the analysis of small molecule metabolites found in various bio-fluids and tissue locations. Chapters one and two of this thesis explore the theory behind metabolomics and reviews representative studies applying NMR metabolomics to neuroscience. Chapter three presents the results from an experiment investigating the alterations of metabolic by-products found in urine caused by both cumulative and remote ancestral prenatal maternal stress. Chapter four explores the results of a similar experiment where the liver tissue from offspring of either cumulative or remote ancestral prenatal maternal stress were analysed. Chapter five is a general discussion and conclusion of the results from both experiments and explores how both sets of results indicate an alteration in the stress response of the offspring.
- ItemThe 2007-2008 financial crisis and accrual anomaly(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Management., 2015) Wang, Ye; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Management; Li, Yutao; Asem, EbenezerThis paper investigates how the 2008 financial crisis affects the accrual anomaly documented by Sloan (1996). I find that the accrual anomaly increases during the financial crisis period and the increase in accrual anomaly does not differ between firms relying and not relying on external financing. Additional analysis shows that arbitrage risk and transaction costs could have contributed to the increase in accrual anomaly during the financial crisis period.
- Item3D biomechanical quantification of piano motor skills(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Kinesiology and Physical Education, 2021) Turner, Craig Patrick; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Shan, Gongbing; Visentin, PeterTo date, systematic biomechanical explorations of music performance have been scarce. In many human activities, movement science methodologies have helped accelerate the learning process, prevent injuries, improve teaching practices, and optimize performance outcomes. The current thesis postulates that a consideration of individualization with respect to biomechanics, anthropometry, and musical strategization can provide musicians with an approach to motor learning where outcomes may be optimized while simultaneously reducing risk of playing-related injury. The thesis is comprised of three case comparison studies using 3D motion capture, biomechanical modeling, and force plate measurements to quantify pianists’ motor behaviours in a variety of performance contexts. The framework established in the thesis is interdisciplinary and provides a model that aims to be “artful” in its efforts to ensure that its analyses of motor behaviours are sensitive to musical intentionality and, thus, can be relevant to musicians.
- Item8,893 kilometres of cooperation : applying Kingdon's model to the development of Canadian border security policy since 9/11(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Political Science, c2009, 2009) Marcotte, Christina; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Hale, GeoffreyCanadian border security policies are largely shaped by the asymmetrical relationship that exists between Canada and the United States. American markets are the primary destination for over eighty percent of Canadian exports, creating an economic dependence highlighted in the days following 9/11. As wait times at the American border extended to sixteen hours the importance of the shared border came sharply into focus. To ensure Canada‟s economic security the Canadian government needed to develop policies that would satisfy the American need for physical security and the Canadian need for economic security. This thesis applies John Kingdon‟s policy streams model to demonstrate and explain the subsequent development of Canadian border security policies. It also examines the institutional context for border security policies and examines two case studies: the Container Security Initiative and NEXUS.
- ItemA comparative study of augmented features and other ensemble approaches for music genre classification(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, 2023) Shariat, Raad; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Zhang, John Z.; Kharaghani, HadiMusic genre classification is essential in the music streaming industry, with many recommendation systems relying on data mining techniques to accurately classify musical genres. However, classifying music genres is challenging due to the inherent diversity of music, even within a single genre. This diversity can make it difficult for machine learning models to classify music accurately, leading to the development of various techniques to improve the performance of these models. One such technique is ensemble learning, which combines the predictions of multiple models to improve the overall accuracy of the ensemble. In this thesis, we propose a new ensemble method called "Augmented Features," which combines the predictions of multiple models by augmenting the input features with additional derived features. This technique can improve the performance of ensemble models by providing additional information to the models, allowing them to capture the music data's complexity better. To evaluate the performance of our ensemble method, we conducted experiments on various music datasets combined with different feature selection techniques. We compared the results to those obtained using the base classifiers and other ensemble methods, including voting, blending, and stacking. Our results showed that the augmented features method repeatedly outperformed the different techniques, particularly on datasets with high dimensionality and complex relationships between features. It is hoped that this work will significantly contribute to ensemble methods and improve the performance of machine learning models in various applications.
- ItemA comparative study of the impact of education on economic growth in 49 selected developing countries(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Economics, 2023) Islam, Syeda Arowah; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Rockerbie, DuaneThis paper estimates the potential impact of human capital, proxied by government expenditures on education, on economic growth. A panel data regression analysis is employed to investigate this association, utilizing yearly data from 2005 to 2010 across 49 selected developing countries. The regression model employs fixed effects and random effects and includes corrections for panel heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. A vector of other independent variables is utilized to account for other factors that could affect GDP growth based on those suggested by other studies. The fixed effects results suggest a positive but statistically insignificant relationship between government expenditure on education and GDP growth (annual %). Conversely, the random effects results suggest an insignificant negative relationship between government expenditure on education and GDP growth (annual %). These results raise questions regarding the productive utilization of education within society and prompt further inquiries into the efficiency of education in developing countries.
- ItemA computational model of Blackfoot noun and verb morphology(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Indigenous Studies, 2023) Kadlec, Dominik Miroslav; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Genee, Inge; Arppe, AnttiThis thesis describes the construction of a computational model of Blackfoot word structure. This model was developed so that it could provide a foundation for Blackfoot language technologies such as spelling and grammar checkers, search suggestion generators, paradigm generators for pedagogical purposes, intelligent dictionaries, automated corpus parsers for linguistic research and more. Many Indigenous languages in Canada have been declining in use. In response, many Indigenous communities and activists have implemented revitalization strategies which vary in effectiveness. One way to help language efforts to be more effective is to ensure that tools for research and revitalization are freely available to community members. In the 21st century this can be achieved in part through technology, particularly with the help of the internet, which offers information freely (in most cases) to those who wish to access it. In this thesis I describe the early developments of a project that will be used to augment currently available digital resources and provide a basis for future technology for the Blackfoot language. I use Finite State Transducer technology to develop a computational model of Blackfoot noun and verb morphology and test the model using a corpus of modern Blackfoot text that was constructed from a curated collection of available texts.
- Item"A matter of my heart": teachers' experiences with inquiry-based professional learning(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 2023) Fitchett, Aaron B.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Adams, Pamela; Mombourquette, CarmenTeacher participation in professional learning and growth activities varies for myriad reasons including, but not limited to, the efforts of educational leaders within schools and school system leaders more broadly. The purpose of this study was to gather insight into what reveals, or is essential to, the role of inquiry in teachers’ experiences of professional learning and growth. Within the study, nine teachers from a mid-sized urban school division in Alberta, Canada were interviewed using a semi-structured interview process. Phenomenological processes were employed to design methodology and data analysis approaches that exposed the essence of participant experiences. Findings showed the relevance of relationships, identity, autonomy, resources, collaboration, and reflection, to the responses participants shared. This research study illuminates the lived experiences of participants for the purpose of generating essential understandings, while simultaneously avoiding judgment, interpretation, or criticism. Deriving that which is the essence of teachers’ experiences was the primary objective of this study; however, recommendations are shared for both the purpose of future research and the professional reflection of educational leaders seeking insight on the role of inquiry in teacher professional learning and growth.
- ItemA mixed-method study on understanding irregular migration to Canada through technology-mediated communication: YouTube as a case study(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Geography and Environment, 2023) Nasser, Wael M. A.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Young, JulieThis study assesses the content, quality, and reliability of YouTube videos about irregular migration to Canada which effect migration decision-making. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, 342 out of 4986 YouTube videos posted between November 2016 and December 2019 were analyzed. The study illustrates the vast array of information available on YouTube on different topics such as transportation to the border, Canadian immigration laws, and basis of refugee claims. The results highlight the need for policymakers and researchers to understand where information is coming from and how potential migrants perceive it. The study examined Canadian government's use of digital spaces, like YouTube, to deter irregular migration and correct misperceptions. The thesis proposes policy recommendations for effective information campaigns on YouTube and proactive monitoring of irregular migration. It also emphasizes the technology sector's significant role in irregular migration to Canada with its implications for both irregular migrants and the Canadian government.
- ItemA quantum accelerated approach for the central path method in linear programming(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, 2023) Adoni, Vijay; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Gaur, DayaThe central path method is a crucial technique used in the optimization of linear programs. The method relies on classical computation which hits its limit for large instances, generally used in practice, in terms of efficiency. In this thesis, a proposal is made to explore the use of quantum algorithms to enhance the central path method’s performance when solving linear programs. We will go through the potential benefits and limitations of replacing the iterative equation-solving step with the HHL quantum algorithm, the Newton’s step for solving a set of nonlinear equations, and converting the nonlinear set of equations to bilinear equations with the help of McCormick relaxations. The aim of this thesis is to perform extensive experimentation on several types of efficient instances using each of the proposed algorithms and to evaluate their effectiveness through numerical simulations to find a promising approach for the central path method.
- ItemA TTOP model of permafrost distribution in the boreal wetland environment of Whatì, NT, Canada(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Geography, 2023) Vegter, Scott E.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Bonnaventure, PhilipMost permafrost models in Canadian boreal forests are low resolution at a regional or continental scale. This study aims to understand the viability of a Temperature at Top of Permafrost (TTOP) model on a local scale in the boreal wetland environment of Whatì, N.T. The model utilizes independent variables of vegetation, topographic positioning index and elevation, with the dependent variable being ground surface temperature collected from 60 Ground Truthing Nodes (GTN). The model predicts that 29 % of the ground is underlain by permafrost by having a mean annual temperature of < 0 °C. Model accuracy is assessed at 62.5 % when compared to ground truthing sites. Most permafrost studies place Whatì in the extensive discontinuous zone estimating that between 50 % - 90 % of the ground is underlain by permafrost. The underestimation and low accuracy show that ground truthing and accuracy assessments in this environment are critical.
- ItemAbstractive multi-document summarization - paraphrasing and compressing with neural networks(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, 2020) Egonmwan, Elozino Ofualagba; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Chali, YlliasThis thesis presents studies in neural text summarization for single and multiple documents.The focus is on using sentence paraphrasing and compression for generating fluent summaries, especially in multi-document summarization where there is data paucity. A novel solution is to use transfer-learning from downstream tasks with an abundance of data. For this purpose, we pre-train three models for each of extractive summarization, paraphrase generation and sentence compression. We find that summarization datasets – CNN/DM and NEWSROOM – contain a number of noisy samples. Hence, we present a method for automatically filtering out this noise. We combine the representational power of the GRU-RNN and TRANSFORMER encoders in our paraphrase generation model. In training our sentence compression model, we investigate the impact of using different early-stopping criteria, such as embedding-based cosine similarity and F1. We utilize the pre-trained models (ours, GPT2 and T5) in different settings for single and multi-document summarization.
- ItemAbsurd realism in postmodern American fiction: Wallace, Pynchon, and Tomasula(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of English, c2013, 2013) Babalola, Titilola; Benzon, KikiIn this thesis, I examine absurd realism as a literary subgenre in postmodern American fiction. I define the concept of absurd realism, focusing on the features that characterize it as a postmodern subgenre. I also look at its relationship with other subgenres of literature such as realism, absurdism, magical realism, and satire. Through the analyses of three postmodern novels: David Foster Wallace’s The Pale King, Thomas Pynchon’s The Crying of Lot 49, and Steve Tomasula’s TOC: A New Media Novel, I illustrate how the features of absurd realism portray a postmodern world pervaded by boredom and chaos. I also consider how these texts convey the absurdity of human existence through the use of everyday characters, events, and setting. In summary, this thesis focuses on how the absurd occurrences and bizarre characters that exist within these books portray, in both literal and metaphoric senses, the complexity of the postmodern world.
- ItemAcademic outcomes following sexual assault: the function of post-traumatic stress(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 2023) Molstad, Taylor Dale; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Luft, Toupey M.Sexual assault is a common experience among post-secondary students, with significant and long-lasting impacts such as the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and difficulties in academic performance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sexual assault, PTSD, and academic outcomes. In addition, social support was tested as a potential moderator in this relationship among post-secondary students. Post-secondary students in Alberta, Canada (N = 100) who had experienced sexual assault since the age of 18 completed a survey on non-consensual sexual experiences, PTSD symptoms, social support, and academic success. The study found that sexual assault was significantly associated with higher PTSD symptom severity, which, in turn, was linked to lower academic success. The hypothesis that social support would moderate the relationship between sexual assault, PTSD, and academic outcomes was not supported. These findings underscore the importance of addressing PTSD symptoms in post-secondary students who have experienced sexual assault to support their academic success.
- ItemAccessing cervical cancer screening in Nigeria: exploring the experiences of Nigerian-born immigrant women in Canada(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2022-12) Fadodun, Oluwadamilola A.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Health Sciences; Zieber, MarkThis research study explored the experiences of women eligible for cervical cancer screening (CCS) in accessing CCS services in Nigeria. The goal was to develop an in-depth understanding of these experiences in order to provide facts that could inform policies and interventions that will improve the utilization of CCS services among Nigerian women. This descriptive study utilized naturalistic inquiry and an intersectionality theoretical lens for understanding women’s access to CCS and its possible intersection with socially constructed categories, which could have influenced these women’s experiences. Ten (10) Nigerian-Immigrant women who met the set eligibility criteria were recruited for interviews using purposive sampling and snowballing. Data was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. The study’s findings detail overarching themes that best capture the experiences of participants with accessing CCS programs in Nigeria. Future research is needed to engender best practices for the planning of CCS programs.
- ItemAddiction, treatment, and evidence-based medicine(Lethbridge, Alta : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Philosophy, 2016) Wilcox, Sean; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Brown, BrysonHow addiction is conceived has important practical implications for how addicts are to be treated. This paper argues that we have a horrible concept of addiction and that has led to horrible treatment results. Examining this concept’s history will show that its main components (especially the brain disease view and the loss of control hypotheses) were invented or assumed by social reformers about 200 years ago, and that they do not map onto the physical world in a rich and systematic fashion. Science has been used to promote these assumptions instead of ever substantively establishing them. There are treatment methods that have been shown to be effective, but these are rarely employed in standard practice. Instead, addicts are provided with interventions that have been shown to be ineffective. Continuing to offer addicts treatment modalities that do not work when there are interventions with proven efficacy, is medical malpractice.
- ItemThe adequacy of the retirement income system for retired middle-income Canadians(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Political Science, 2022) Ebhomielen, Anderson Edo; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Hale, Geoffrey; Belanger, Yale D.Lower-income retired Canadians in income quintile one are well taken care of by the government’s income support system, while upper-income Canadians (income quintile five) typically have adequate income and investments in retirement. However, this thesis established that middle-income Canadians in income quintiles two, three, and four rely on a mix of retirement income sources to achieve sustainable pre-retirement living standards. Data analyses were used to determine the adequacy of the retirement income system. The thesis focused on selected periods of 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2018 and compared the performance of the RIS in Canada and across the selected provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia. This thesis established that the RIS is adequate for middle-income Canadians. Employment income during retirement has no significant relationship with the Gross Replacement Rate (GRR). The thesis confirmed that the RIS achieved its objectives through the various retirement income sources.
- ItemAdiabaticity of high strain rate compression testing using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Apparatus(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Arts and Science, 1997, 1997) Walton, Frank Stewart; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Kaminski, DavidIn the development of explosively formed projectiles (EFPs), researchers are faced with the problem of testing prospective metals at high strain rates. So far it has been assumed that, relative to the cooling time, the deformation time is practically instantaneous indicating that the test is adiabatc: none of the heat generated within the metal is lost to conduction. In this paper we construct a model that subtracts out the effects of kinetic energy and uses specific heat as a function of temperature. In this way we can focus on the energy change in the specimen that can be attributed to temperature and determine just how adiabatic the high strain rate test is.
- ItemAdolescent religious disposition in Canada : an exploratory sociological analysis(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Arts and Science, 1995, 1995) Penner, James Allan; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Bibby, ReginaldTaking as a given the general decline of organized religion in Canada, this thesis attempts to document the present lack of commitment towards organized religion among adolescents. Four questions are explored: (1) how committed are Canada's adolescents toward organized religion relative to other social options? (2) to what degree has religious commitment amond Canadian adolescents shifted over time? (3) in what ways does adolescent religious commitment vary according to religious group? and (4) do adolescent religiosity patterns follows those of adults? The major finding of this study, based on national Project Teen Canada and Project Canada data, is that organized religion is seldom experienced or valued by the vast majority of Canadian youth. Furthermore, adolescent religious commitment decreased from 1984 to 1992. Conservative Protestants reported higher religious commitment than did other youth and adolescent religiosity generally reflected adult levels. Lastly, tentative evidence suggest that Canada may experience future social consequences if adolescent religious disinterest continues. Despite being tentative and exploratory in nature, it is believed that the thesis gives social scientists their first national, in depth, sociological analysis of Canadian youth and organized religion. As such the findings provide a solid launching pad for further research. The thesis concludes with a plea for innovative study of Canadian adolescent religiosity and offers a list of potential projects.
- ItemAdrenalectomy-induced neuronal degeneration : development of a novel animal model of cognitive dysfuntion and neurogenic treatment strategies(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Neuroscience, 2010, 2010) Spanswick, Simon C.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Sutherland, Robert J.Long-term adrenalectomy (ADX) results in a specific loss of dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus of adult rats, occurring over a period of weeks to months. This loss of granule cells results in cognitive deficits in a number of tasks that depend on intact hippocampal function. The gradual nature of ADX-induced cell death and the ensuing deficits in cognition are similar to those experienced by patient populations suffering from a variety of pathological conditions. Here we present an animal model by which we use ADX to produce a loss of granule cells within the hippocampus of rats. We also provide experimental evidence for a treatment strategy by which the lost granule cells may be replaced, with the goal of functional recovery in mind.