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- ItemPlay in a first grade classroom(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1987, 1987) McDougal, Mary-Ann; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Pollard, MichaelThe specific purposes of this study were to determine: 1) the extent to which various categories of play were evident in a learning centers period in a first grade classroom: 2) whether specific activities and levels of play promoted various social groupings and levels of interaction: 3) whether the teacher's and children's perceptions of the program were similar. Data collected during a learning centers period in a self-contained first grade classroom (N=20) in southern Alberta. A target child procedure was used to observe individuals in order to record activities and language. Individual behaviours were then coded into task, social and language categories. As well, interviews with the children and teacher were conducted to obtain information regarding the perceptions of individuals about the program. In order to analyze the data, frequency tabulations were made of the number of activities contained in the 800 half-minute observation segments. These frequencies were then converted to levels of play in order to determine the range and relative frequencies of the various levels of play. Further analysis involved grouping social interactions into various levels in order that trends might be reported. Finally, the field notes from the interviews were analyzed in terms of themes in order that the perceptions of the teacher and children might be reported. The results of the study indicate that approximately 36% of the observed behaviours were considered play and that a significant proportion of the play was of the functional or constructive type. These lower levels of play accounted for the majority of the solitary and parallel social formations. The results of the study suggest implications for the range and choice of materials and activities which might be used to promote play as well as the role of the teacher in promoting play and facilitating play during the structured time.
- ItemThe effects of practice on conference behavior of supervisors following participation in instructional supervision training(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1987, 1987) Harty, Roger Wayne; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Whitehead, RitchieThe purpose of this study was to determine the nature and extent of changes in supervisor conference behavior which could be attributed to the effect of practice following a graduate course in Instructional Supervision. In this study, half of the supervisors were able to practice their supervisory skills following their training in Instructional Supervision while the remaining supervisors in the sample were not able to practice their supervisory skills. Data were gathered from video-tapes of post-course and final conferences through the use of the Supervisor-Teacher Analogous Categories System (STACS) and the Timed Interval Categorical Observation Recorder (TICOR). STACS is a 19-category behavior system which was developed to investigate behavior which occurs between supervisors and teachers in supervisory conferences. TICOR is a micro computer used for collecting and analyzing observational data through the use of hardware and software components which in this case were adapted to use STACS. The data were gathered to answer the study question, do participants who had the opportunity to practice supervisory skills differ significantly from those participants that had no opportunity to practice their skills. Eleven variables from STACS were chose to document conference behavior change between the practice and no practice groups. Analysis of Variance was used to test for significant differences in conference behavior between the post-course and final conference tapes for the supervisors in the practice and no practice groups. The study findings indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the group of supervisors who were able to practice their supervisory skills and the group of supervisors who were unable to practice their supervisory skills.
- ItemSchool-aged children who have witnessed wife abuse : a descriptive study of social, educational, and health issues(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1987, 1987) Edwards, Wynne Margaret; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Coates, CarolieSince the 1970s, wife abuse has been recognized and studied as a major problem in the Western World. Until this decade, little attention has been directed to the effects of these battering relationships on the children who witnessed them. This exploratory study described a group of children whose mothers had been previously physically abused by their intimate partners. Specifically, the school behavior and achievement, social behavior, and health concerns of the children were described. Twenty school-aged children between the ages of seven and thirteen years formed the sample. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research modes were used in the study. The children and their mothers were interviewed using semi-structured interviews designed for the study. A standardized behavior checklist, the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, was also completed by each mother, which further described her child and allowed for comparisons between the children in this study and children in a normalized sample. Comparisons were made between gender groups within the sample. The data were also reviewed for indications of the modeling behavior described in Social Learning Theory. Children in the sample were reported to have witnessed the abuse of their mothers for an average of 4.7 years. Child abuse as well as wife abuse had occurred in a high percentage of the homes. There was a high incidence of intergenerational violence in the families of the children studied. Mother and child reports were highly consistent and comparisons based on gender showed no significant differences between boys and girls. Many school problems including a high percentage of school grade repeats were described. Aggressive behavior was reported for over half of the children. Few serious health problems were reported although many of the children complained of headaches and stomachaches. A large number of improvements occurred in the children after the abuse of the mother ended. In spite of the many problems described, most of the children in the study seemed to be functioning well and the mothers were optimistic about their futures. It was concluded that with the help of such measures as supportive parenting and short-term counselling, these children should continue to function well. However, approximately one quarter of the children had more severe problems and will probably require long-term help.
- ItemThe effect of gender-role stereotyping on the career aspirations and expectations of pre-adolescent children of high intellectual ability(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1987, 1987) Purvis, Carillon Ruth Cameron; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Greene, MyrnaAlthough the movement of women into the Canadian labor force has been increasingly steady over the past three decades, the number of women occupying positions of power, prestige and leadership within their fields remains low in comparison to that of men. In theory, virtually all careers and levels within those careers should be available to both males and females, but this availability is not always perceived to be real. The desire to reveal why this is so provides the impetus for this study. Career patterns are influenced by a variety of forces, one of which is gender-role stereotypes. A greater understanding of the roles these stereotypes play in career aspirations is the goal of this study. One hundred male and female pre-adolescent students of high and average intellectual ability were surveyed by means of a questionnaire to determine the effect of gender-role stereotypes on their career aspirations and expectations. Correlations, analyses of variance, and qualitative data provided the statistical and descriptive information for interpretation. The principal finding of this study was that the influence of gender-role stereotypes on pre-adolescent children was confirmed, even across ability groups. Stereotypical attitudes were unrelated to intellectual ability, as high and average ability groups conformed to traditional attitudes exhibited toward the sexes. However, there did seem to be a trend towards a more androgynous attitude among the females than among the males, particularly high achieving males. High ability males showed a trend towards exaggerated stereotypical attitudes in comparison to the other subject groups. Furthermore, high ability students generally had more to say and exhibited more confidence (particularly the high ability males) in their responses. This study may provide an increase in awareness and understanding of any real or perceived barriers to achievement and thus eventually lead to greater opportunities and personal fulfillment for both males and females.
- ItemThe health of nurses : their subjective well-being, lifestyle/preventive practices and goals for health(Lethbridge, Alta : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1987, 1987) Hoskin, Pauline Loretta Arnott; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Greene, MyrnaAlthough promotion of health and healthy lifestyles are accepted tasks of registered nurses, the assessment of nurses' own health and health behaviours has rarely been assessed. In this study questionnaire responses from 59 female registered nurses and interviews with ten nurses employed full-time in south-west Alberta were analyzed. The questionnaire consisted of items taken and adapted from the Canada Health Survey (Health & Welfare Canada, 1981) on subjective well-being (Affect Balance Scale and Health Opinion Survey) and certain lifestyle practices (pap test, breast examination, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and seat belt use). A question on leisure time physical activity was take from Godin, Jobin and Bouillon (1986). Questions assessing self-reported immune status and perception of self as a health role model for others were designed by the researcher. Data from the questionnaires were described in narrative, frequency counts and percentages. Comparisons were made among responses in various parts of the questionnaire as well as with the results of the Canada Health Survey. Interview questions designed by the researcher assessed the ways in which the nurse participants thought about health and their goals for health; transcribed interview responses were categorized according to themes; further interpretation was done on three main themes (maintenance of health as a goal, perceived lack of nurses' self-care and nurses' expectations of themselves). The nurses' scores on the Affect Balance Scale and the Health Opinion Survey place them toward the positive end of a positive-negative continuum of subjective well-being (Okun, Stock, Haring & Witter, 1984). Comparison of the participants' responses regarding lifestyle and preventive practices with the Canada Health Survey suggests that these nurses had relatively adequate health practices with the possible exception of participation in vigorous physical activity. A majority of the participants perceived themselves as role models of health, particularly non-smokers and those with post-RN education. The ten interviewed nurses generally gave maintenance of health as their primary present and future goal for health. Lack of self-care was associated by participants with nurses' and women's traditional concern for others before themselves. The participants seemed to have generally high expectations for themselves and other nurses. This descriptive and exploratory study may provide a baseline for future study of nurses' health, an indication of areas for health promotion programs for nurses and a discussion point for nurses to continue to assess their own health and the factors affecting their own health and goals for health.
- ItemEncouraging girls in science : facts, theories and practical suggestions(Lethbridge, AB : Faculty of Education, University of Lethbridge, 1987, 1987) Smith, Jennifer; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Butt, Richard; Mrazek, RickIt is the objective of this paper to present the facts concerning the current status of Canadian women in science, to review the theories which have been put forth to explain gender disparities in science participation, to outline the findings of research in the area of gender and science, and to suggest ways in which science teachers could respond to these research findings.
- ItemThe relationship between traditional and whole language approaches to language arts instruction(Lethbridge, AB : University of Lethbridge, 1988, 1988) Bright, Robin M.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Whitehead, RitchieInitially the purpose of this ethnographic study was to discover insights into effective teaching in an actual classroom. However, as the study developed, it became apparent that two very different and distinct approaches, to language arts instruction were operating. These two approaches came to be known and understood as traditional and whole language concepts of effective thinking. This lead to the question, to what extent are these two approaches compatible in one classroom during language arts? Each position was researched and explored to provide extensive background and clear definitions for the study. Throughout this process the data collection began. Descriptive data of one grade four classroom during language arts instruction emerged. The research did not focus on one of the two pre-determined teaching behaviors but described the classroom as a social situation during language arts. The lengthy and in-depth description contained information about me, the teacher, the school, the students, the classroom, the parents, the program and it's resources. The main data collection occurred through participant observation which means I studied a situation in which I was already and ordinary participant. Data were collected according to a systematic scheme which served to document the classroom and were compared with ethnographic notes of two other independent field researchers, who were non-participate observers. The ethnographic record consisted of field notes, tape recordings, pictures, student work and student and teacher journals. These data were collected from the beginning of January until the middle of April, 1987. Each observation lasted for 30-45 minutes twice weekly, yielding about 25 hours of classroom data over a four month period. The data provided a lengthy description of a grade four classroom during language arts instruction and in so doing, discovered characteristics of both traditional and whole language approaches. Specifically, a traditional approach exercised greatest influence in the areas of: 1) spelling 2) classroom management, and 3) evaluation. A whole language approach primarily influenced the following areas: 1) concept of learning 2) pedagogy, and 3) curriculum. These conclusions suggest that what goes on in a classroom may be a highly complex process that is not necessarily influenced by only one theoretical approach but by a combination of several. This may suggest a change in the treatment of these approaches as unconnected strategies of effective teaching.
- ItemAn investigation of the content and context of social intelligence(Lethbridge, AB : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1989, 1989) Mauthe, Keith Frederick; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Greene, MyrnaSubjects' views and conceptions of social intelligence were investigated by having 40 adults, male inmates in an Alberta correctional centre rate the importance of 20 behavioral characteristics representing the domain of social intelligence. Social intelligence was defined as a person's ability to understand others and to act wisely in social situations. The 20 characteristics, derived from an earlier study by Ford and Miura (1983), were rated for each of three common social contexts by having subjects think of the kind of person who would be a close personal friend, a teacher, or a person in a conflict. The following research questions were addressed in the study: a) How do adult, male inmates in an Alberta correctional centre view the construct of social intelligence? b) Do subjects' ratings of the 20 characteristics that describe social intelligence form factors that resemble the clusters identified by subjects rating the same 20 characteristics in a study by Ford and Miura (1983)? c) How do subjects' ratings of social intelligence differ among the three social contexts investigated? d) Is there a common core of social intelligence characteristics that subjects rate as important across all three social contexts? Descriptive statistics revealed that subjects generally rated the 20 characteristics as quite high in importance in all three social contexts. However, the characteristics were rated highest in importance in the context "A teacher", followed by "A close personal friend" and "A person in conflict". Factor analyses revealed that subjects' ratings in the present study shared some similarities in structure with the clusters or categories of characteristics identified by subjects in the earlier study by Ford and Miura (1983). Analyses of variance revealed several significant differences when sujects' ratings of importance of the 20 characteristics and four categories of social intelligence were compared across contexts. In the present study, a common core of four characteristics of social intelligence were ranked highly in importance across all three social contexts. Findings from the present study provide support for the existence of the categories "Prosocial skills" and "Social-instrumental skills" as identified in the study by Ford and Miura (1983). The importance of studying the construct of social intelligence in particular social contexts and particular populations was also demonstrated. Finally, the implications of the findings of the present study are discussed in relation to the planning and delivery of inmate education programs as well as the continuing study of the construct of social intelligence.
- ItemStress and distress in teaching : one teacher's story(Lethbridge, AB : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1989, 1989) Jensen, Patricia Barbara; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Greene, MyrnaAn integrated model of teacher burnout is presented as the backdrop to a personal history of one distressed teacher. Using a series of collaborative interviews, Sarah's experiences as a classroom teacher are explored as part of a search for the contributors to her feelings of distress and disatisfaction with teaching. A number of themes are identified which relate to Sarah's life in the classroom, her search for autonomy and proximity, and the diversity of her roles within the bureaucracy of the school and the network of her family. Sarah has developed an inventory of coping resources compatible with her values, goals, commitments and personal style. She includes problem-focused, emotion-focused, and preventive strategies. As the study progressed, we came to believe that the fundamental stressors in Sarah's life have arisen out of the fact that she is a woman, doing a woman's work of teaching and nurturing a family, and experiencing all of the expected and unique stressors that are a part of that experience. The complex role of women in teaching is discussed, and the suggestion is made that the nature of schooling would change if women had greater access to decision-making levels within their profession. Suggestions are also made regarding inservice and preservice training for teachers in order to increase their coping resources.
- ItemTeacher stories in thought and action(Lethbridge, AB : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1989., 1989) Paul, William James; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Butt, RichardThe primary purpose of this study was to investigate a biographical approach to understanding how we, as teachers and co-researchers, think and act; and how we have come to think and act the way we do in our classrooms. The term autobiographic praxis was central to the study as a specific conceptualization of a teacher's knowledge. Until this study, autobiographic praxis existed as a biographical conceptualization of a teacher's personal, practical and professional knowledge based. This study used the work of Butt and Raymond who, with two teachers, Lloyd and Glenda, working as co-researchers, explored and reported these two teacher's stories highlighting elements of their knowledge held. Based upon that work, this study, through ethnographic field work, returned to the respective teachers classrooms and utilized elements of their stories to guide both observation and interviews about their classroom practices. This exploration of teacher knowledge held and teacher knowledge expressed was an attempt to show the potential of a methodology which integrates autobiography, classroom observation and biographic and ethnographic interviews. The results with respect to the two teachers, Lloyd and Glenda, indicated that:(1) the substance and process of knowledge they held can be accessed through collaborative autobiographic inquiry, and (2) that the knowledge expressed as elements of classroom action can be observed in a stronger interpretive light if guided by understandings of their stories, such that (3) methodologically through biographic and ethnographic interviews elements of knowledge held, as revealed through autobiography, can be brought into a dialogue with the actions of knowledge expressed, as observed through ethnographic participant observation, and thus (4) the resultant findings were that in the thoughts and actions of the two teachers significant indicators were present to illustrate a strong harmonic relationship between who they were as persons, and who they were as teachers, due specifically to a synchronicity between their knowledge held and knowledge expressed. The process, of doing the sudy, illustrated the potential of biographic conceptualization of teacher knowledge accessed through a method of inquiry which featured story, observation and interview. The findings of this study were considered desirable in that teachers and researchers, working together, should attempt to engage in action research concerned with achieving a dialogue between teacher thought and action.
- ItemA study of factors associated with student choice in the university selection process(Lethbridge, AB : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1989, 1989) Beswick, Roslyn L. K.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Greene, MyrnaEvery year university bound graduating high school students are faced with the problem of selecting a post secondary institution. The selection process typically spans a number of years and involves considering many factors. Identifying those factors that influence students during the selection process was the goal of this study. Two hundred twenty-seven first year university students attending one of three degree granting institutions in Alberta were surveyed by means of a questionnaire to determine those factors considered during the university selection process. Correlations, means, analyses of variance and qualitative data provided the statistical and descriptive information for interpretation. The principal finding of this study was that parents, particularly mothers, are the most influential persons reported to affect the process. The factors which tend to be important to students at the University of Alberta were not the same factors important to students attending Camrose Lutheran College and the University of Lethbridge, the two smaller universities. University of Alberta students value reputation of the institution, reputation of the program, variety of courses offered, and proximity to home as important factors in their choice. Camrose Lutheran College and University of Lethbridge students value low student/professor ratio, low student population, and reputation of institution. This study may provide an increase in understanding of the selection process and thus assist those involved in guiding students through the process.
- ItemSchool climate and student affective needs : a descriptive study of four junior high schools(Lethbridge, AB : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1989, 1989) Koran, Carol Marie; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Campbell, CathyResearch has demonstrated that school climate has a significant impact on several student outcomes. Positive school climate is associated with the development of positive self-concept in students, increased feelings of attachment and commitment to the school, and overall satisfaction with the school experience. This study described the school climate of four urban junior high schools, with specific attention to climate factors related to the affective development of students. The sample consisted of 506 Grade 9 students. Students' perceptions of their school's climate were measured with a standard climate questionnaire, the Effective School Battery. In addition, the principals of each school were interviewed in order to provide additional insight into the school's philosophy of education, school policies, and other aspects related to affective school climate. The data collected was used to determine if junior high schools exhibited school climates which addressed the affective needs of their students. The student responses indicated generally positive feelings about their schools. The fours schools rated high to average in the areas of Safety, Planning and Action, Clarity of Rules, Extra-curricular Program, and Student Influence. Areas in which the majority of schools rated below average or low included Respect for Students, and School Rewards. Interviews with principals revealed that affective development was considered to be an important component of junior high education. In addition, principals tended to support the findings from the student surveys. The findings illustrate that these schools have generally positive school climates as perceived by the students. Students feel comfortable and secure in the school environment, are aware of the rules guiding their behavior and tend to be involved in a variety of school activities. The areas which schools need to improve include increasing positive reinforcement and rewards for students, and ensuring that students feel they are treated with respect and dignity in their interactions with school personnel.
- ItemFaculty perceptions of collaborative programming for the baccalaureate as entry to nursing practice(Lethbridge, AB : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1990, 1990) Pickett, Wendy Lee; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Greene, MyrnaThe primary purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of southern Alberta nurse educators regarding the concept of collaborative programming as one way of working towards baccalaureate entry into nursing practice (EP 2000). Specifically, answers to the following questions were sought: 1. To what extent do nurse educators support the EP 2000 mandate, and why do they hold these views? 2. To what extent do nurse educators support the concept of collaborative programming, and why do they hold these views? 3. What programming alternatives do nurse educators perceive as desirable for working towards baccalaureate entry to practice? 4. What are the perceived barriers and facilitators to developing a collaborative program? 5. What factors may influence a nurse educator's perception of collaborative programming? A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 112 full-time nurse educators in four dimploma nursing programs (DNP) and two baccalaureate nursing programs (BNP) in southern Alberta. Completed returns numbered 74 (66%). Descriptive statistics, content analysis and the Chi Square statistical test were used to analyze the data. Lewin's (1951) force field theory was used as a guide in inteerpretation of the data findings. The major findings of the study were as follows: 1. Generally, nurse-faculty perceived the system of nursing education to be inadequate in meeting the health care needs of society; in providing for education and career mobility; and in the kind and amount of communication between its educational components. 2. A majority of BNP and DNP faculty support the EP 2000 mandate. Each group identified the need to upgrade professional standards and educational requirements to better serve society (consumers, patients, hospitals, marketplace demands and the profession) and better meet the increased intellectual, technical and judgemental demands required by the expanded roles in nursing practice. 3. A majority of the BNP and DNP faculty support the development of collaborative baccalaureate programsprovi for reasons ranging from professional benefits to pragmatic and economic aspects. However, there were a number of ambiguities and contradictions in the participants' responses. 4. Restricted provincial funds, lack of government support for EP 2000, concerns regarding the academic qualifications of diploma faculty to deliver university transfer courses, the need to protect existing program territoriality, and difficulties in mobilizing inter-institutional processes were perceived as barriers influencing the development of collaborative programs. The EP 2000 position statements, the increased student demands for baccalaureate education, and a desire to retain the strengths and resources of diploma education were preceived as facilitators. 5. The participants' type of employing institution affected certain perceptions of collaborative programming and the baccalaureate as entry to nursing practice. It was concluded that less overt resistance to collaborative programming was found than might have been predicted, given the slow movement in the province toward planned collaboration. The base seems to exist for a concerted, organized, regional effort in this direction, provided that serious attention is paid to the issues identified by the respondents. Finally, the data provide a foundation for developing on educational process and action steps to enhance progress toward collaboration as one option for facilitating EP 2000. Recommendations were presented for nursing education and future research.
- ItemFostering achievement motivation(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1991, 1991) Hillyer, F. James; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Winzer, MargretResearchers defined achievement motivation as a viable research construct in the early 1950s. Adults increased their achievement motivation scores--often with correlative increased achievement. The literature is replete with ways to increase achievement but researchers paid less attention to what could be a core issue--affecting achievement motication itself. McClelland demonstrated repeatedly that adult business people could develop achievement motivation. Alschuler and deCharms found that classroom treatment procedures could yield increased student achievement motivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which treatment activites could foster achievement motivation in a sample of rural Southern Alberta grade four students. To accomplish this, the investigator in the present study employed a combination of the methods used by Alschuler with adolescents and deCharms with younger students. The treatment group experienced achievement motivation action strategies, conceptualized achievement motivation thoughts, related the achievement motivation syndrome to three areas of personal life, and practised what they learned. Two control groups were grade four classes in rural Alberta; one received a pre-test, the other received the post-test only. This investigator used Gumpgookies (Ballif & Adkins, 1968) to quantify achievement motivation. Grade four students in rural Southern Alberta did not obtain significantly different Gumpgookies (Ballif & Adkins, 1968) (achievement motivation) scores following four weeks of achievement motivation training modelled after Alschuler and deCharms. Birth order and rank in class emerged as significant variables.
- ItemFactors influencing decision making during patient care : nursing students' perceptions(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1991, 1991) Wiens, V. I.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Mazurek, KasDuring their clinical practicum, nursing students are involved in making decisions about the care for their patient or group of patients. The purpose of this study was to ascertain nursing students' perceptions of the variety and magnitude of factors that influence them as they are making decisions about patient care. For the study a nonexperimental approach utlizing a cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Thirty-three second year and thirty-one third year nursing students from a diploma nursing school responded to a questionnaire designed to reflect perceived domains of influence in thier clinical decision making. A subset of 18 subjects were interviewed. Some of the major findings include: 1) More second year than third year students perceived stress as a factor affecting their clinical decision making. Third year students most often mentioned the instructor-student relationship as a source of stress. Second year students most often referred to their workload and fatigue as contributing to their stress. 2) More third year than second year students preceived decision making theory and the nursing process to be an influencing factor in decision making. 3) Previous life and health-related work experience was indicated to be an influencing factor in clinical decision making more often by second year students than by third year students. 4) When asked to choose and rank five from a list of sixteen influencing factors in clinical decision making, the combined group chose the following in order; knowledge of patients and their condition, level of self confidence, knowledge of nursing proces, relationship with instructor, previous nursing experience, and previous life experience. 5) In the interviews the two most frequently mentioned guiding forces in decision making were: (a)what they (the student) or someone close to them would want and (b)patient preference. The study encourages nursing instructors to be cognizant of the variety of forces impacting student decision making in the clinical setting. It also suggests that students who are encouraged to incorporate their personal reality in an atmosphere that provides some latitude in decision making will be more likely to assume decision-making responsibility.
- ItemThe use of journals in children's writing development(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1991, 1991) Platt, David Ian; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Grigg, NancyThe purpose of this study is to analyze the content of dialogue journals of selected third grade students in order to discover the predominant themes in their writing. A second purpose is to explore how a teacher used the information gained from journals with her students to make curriculum decisions in her classroom. Although many reasons have been given for using journals in school writing programs, few studies have examined the role and impact of dialogue journals in primary grade classrooms. It is hoped that this study will add to the knowlege concerning dialogue journals in primary grades. This study is rooted in the desire to explore and explain what it means for a teacher to enter into a dialogue through journal writing with his or her students. It is hoped that this investigation will not only provide new insights into this relationship but also describe what grade three students and their teacher write about in the process of utilizing a journal. Six grade three students and thier teacher were involved in this study. Student journal entries, the teacher responses to the students' journal entries, and subsequent teacher interviews were all subjected to content analysis. The principal finding of this study was that dialogue journals not only provided a safe and secure environment in which children could express their ideas and knowledge, but it also became an important curriculum tool where specific writing needs and/or instruction based on interest could be met cooperatively. All student wrote on a variety of topics, regardless of their writing ability, and the teacher always responded in a positive manner. This study may provide added awareness of the possibilities of utilizing dialogue journal writing for cooperative curriculum planning. If teachers provide opportunities for students to become partners in curriculum planning, based on their needs, perhaps schools may become more personally fulfilling for both teachers and students.
- ItemSurveying alternative conceptions about energy in the classroom(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1992, 1992) Gue, David Leslie; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Butt, RichardSecondary school pupils' concepts of energy were probed by clinical interviews and a multiple choice survey administered to 84 Alberta students. Preliminary information was gathered from curriculum documents, misconceptions literature and eight preliminary interviews. Both the interviews and the written survey were based on the interview-about-intances approach and used multiple-choice questions with free-response justification of answers. The wide range of alternative conceptions that were expressed paralleled findings of similar studies elsewhere. Most descriptions of energy were framed in substantive or ambiguous terms. Energy was frequently associated with living things, movement, and task performance. It was confused with concepts of heat, force, and pressure. Changes in physical systems were seen variously as consuming energy or as producing it upon demand. Aspects of a scientific conception were more evident among senior physics students, but differences between classes and grade levels did not generally reach statistical significance. Very few responses involved notions of energy as an abstract or conserved quantity. References to energy degradation or dissipation during changes were infrequent in interviews, survey responses, and curriculum documents. Subjects tended to choose similar responses on parallel interview and survey quesitions. Interview subjects showed evidence of preferred conceptual orientations towards a variety of situations, although their survey responses showed no parallel consistency. Conflicting evidence was obtained regarding the spontaneous use of energy-based descriptions of physical situations. Findings were interpreted from a constructivist stance, and implications for the study and teaching of specific topics were drawn. In addition, results suggested the efficacy of appropriate multiple choice instruments as an alternative to clinical interviews in the investigation of alternative conceptions.
- ItemNurses' perception of death education(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1992, 1992) Grant Kalischuk, Ruth; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Sovka, FrankThe primary purpose of this study was to examine nurses including student nurses perceptions of death education in southern Alberta as one way of improving futrue nursing curricula. Five nurse subgroups were included, as follows: college and university students, hospital nurses, community nurses, and nurse educators. A questionnaire was developed and piloted prior to distribution to 450 nurses in six locations, including two urban and four rural sites, in southern Alberta. Completed, useable returns numbered 373 (83%). Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to analyze the data from scaled questionnaire items; content analysis was used to interpret written response items. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks were developed and utilized to guide the interpretation of findings. Generally, nurses perceived that existing death education remains inadequate as preparation for sound clinical nursing practice. Several statistically significant findings related to the provision of professional terminal care were reported amon the five nurse subgroups. Nurses identified concerns and deficits within existing nursing death educaiton and offered several specific suggestions for improvement. The improvement of death education for nurses will most likely result in the delivery of safe, effective, quality nursing care practice to the dying person and family.
- ItemInternational students at Alberta universities : perceptions and levels of satisfaction(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1993, 1993) Calderwood, Denise; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; Mazurek, KasInternational students in Canadian universities face an array of sometimes bewildering practical, cultural, academic, and social challenges. Many may not be fully prepared to cope with such challenges without some form of assistance from the university and surrounding community. Such students need assistance and support to face successfully the challenge of a new society and a new environment. It is therefore critical that the institutions admitting international students develop an understanding of what support and assistance can be offered that is most helpful and welcomed by the international student. In this study, undergraduate men and women, from the University of Lethbridge, the University of Calgary and the University of Alberta responded to a questionnaire consisting of thirty-two questions on a five-point lickert scale ("strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"). The questions were grouped into the following categories: first contact with Canada, arrival and orientation, assistance for international students, English language skills, housing and accommodation, academic assistance, and getting to know Canadians. An additional summative thirteen questions, some of which are open-ended, and eight demographic questions were also asked. Follow-up interviews were arranged with a subset of the questionnaire respondents. A total of 131 returned questionnaires and 32 personal interviews were available for data analysis. The most notable findings are as follows: (i) Higher levels (at or above 65%) of satisfaction were found in the areas of assistance requested from professors and fellow students, the teaching and content of their courses, fair treatment from professors, and making friends with and visiting in the homes of Canadians. (ii) Lower levels (at or below 45%) of satisfaction were found in the areas of assistance in obtaining suitable accommodation, the welcome and orientation at their university, time to discuss course work with professors, the lack of international content in their courses, the opportunity to get to know Canadian and other international students in a non-academic setting, and the experience of racism in Canada. This inquiry found that overall, 52.5% (68 students) were satisfied by the welcome and assistance they had received by the university and community.
- ItemGetting real : peer counselling as a way to authenticity(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education, 1993, 1993) Six, Karen Ruth; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Education; O'Dea, JaneThe purpose of this thesis is to address the question, "Is Peer Counselling a way of fostering or promoting the existential notion of authenticity?" The intention of Peer Counselling is to improve the psychological health and well being of its participants (both counsellors and counsellees) through peer intervention and education. Peer Counselling training is a curriculum and method wherein students are taught to listen to and help in the choice-making process of their peers. Peer Counselling, both training and outreach interaction, encourages the development of positive identity and responsible independence as individuals exercise more control over their experiences. It seeks to create opportunities to learn how to actively and intentionally use experiences to gain new levels of confidence and competence. A process oriented, experiential training approach, it ensures the content is relevant to the learner. The self-directed attitude and approach of peer counselling encourages counsellors and counsellees alike to become active participants in their own development, in their own life choices. The acquisition of interpersonal communication skills such as empathic listening, facilitative questioning, decision making and values clarification may aid both counsellor and counsellee in a movement towards the existential notion of authenticity. Authenticity includes such characteristics and qualities as: genuineness in 'good faith'; autonomy; discovery of one's 'care structure'; creative choice making; critical examination of societally imposed norms; radical responsibility for the conditions and perspectives of one's life; and an openness to the dynamic nature of one's unique being. Re-constructions of peer counselling interactions provide opportunity to examine the theoretical possiblities for peer counselling to promote authenticity. Finally the implications of merging this curriculum with the philosophical notion of authenticity is examined in the light of actual classroom experience. Implications for pedagogy are discussed.