Browsing Health Sciences by Issue Date
Now showing 1 - 20 of 228
Results Per Page
- ItemVisceral learning as concept identification(Blackwell Publishing, 1980-05) Roberts, Larry E.; Williams, Robert J.; Farrell, V. T.; Keleher, B.; Marlin, Richard G.Visceral learning may be depicted as a process in which subjects seek information about the behavioral goal. Concepts of this goal are based initially upon procedural details of training and are modified as feedback identifies instances of the target response. This approach was assessed by determining whether subjects were capable of describing activities associated with the visceral target after feedback training. Two groups were given visual feedback for changes in heart rate (HR) or lateralized skin conductance (LSC). The two visceral targets within each group (HR: inc/dec; LSC: L>R/R>L) were designated as Response A and Response B. Production of the response on A and B trials in the presence (Training) and absence (Transfer) of feedback was measured. After a one-hour session subjects were asked, without prior notification, to provide written reports describing what they did to control feedback on A and B trials. Awareness of the response was assessed by determining whether judges given the reports successfully identified the visceral target which was required on A and B trials for each subject. Awareness of activities related to feedback was also assessed by quantitative scales completed by the subjects after the written report. Awareness of the response was demonstrated on identification tasks for each experimental condition (HR and LSC). Furthermore, awareness (measured as probability ofcorrect identification) was significantly correlated with performance during Training and Transfer in the HR oroup, but this relationship was obtained only for Transfer in the LSC condition. Transfer without awareness was not observed in either group. Scale ratings did not differ between the visceral targets in either training condition. However, awareness was confirmed by significant correlations between these ratings and visceral performance for Training and Transfer in the HR group and for Transfer in the LSC group. These findings suggest that veridical concepts of the behavioral goal are formed during visceral learning. The concept-formation process appears important to Transfer but does not fully explain performance on feedback trials in the LSC experiment. (Supported by A0132 from NSERC of Canada)
- ItemA problem solving approach to visceral learning(1981) Roberts, Larry E.; Williams, Robert J.; Marlin, Richard G.An earlier paper in this series depicted visceral learning as a problem in concept identification in which subjects seek information about the visceral target (Roberts, Williams, Farrell, & Marlin. 1979). Concepts pertaining to this target are based initially upon procedural details of training and are modified as feedback identifies instances of the desired response. Evidence for this view was sought by examining verbal reports for the information about target responding that is presumably the product of a concept identification process. Accurate self-report was observed when subjects were successfully trained to produce either: 1) an increase and decrease in heart rate, or 2) lateralized changes (L > R and R> L) in skin conductance. Control of the response in the absence of accurate self-report was not observed in either training condition. The present paper describes an extended framework for the study of learning mechanisms. In this approach, a task statement is assumed to establish a problem space within which visceral learning proceeds. Major components of this space include: 1) a representation of task objectives. 2) initial concepts concerning effective strategies derived from the task statement and the subject's personal history, and 3) a processing system which is organized to acquire information about the response from feedback events. The processing system is seen as a construction which is determined uniquely for each learning procedure by processing requirements that are implicit in problem structure. The system organizes memory to receive information about the response and codes this information in a manner appropriate for production of the target in accordance with performance requirements of the task. This analysis suggested that within-subject training for two visceral targets with a transfer requirement (as in Roberts et al., 1979) might have favored identification of differences rather than similarities between the targets and encoding in a manner appropriate for recall without feedback as a retrieval cue. Consequently accurate self-report was assessed as a function of forewarning of transfer when subjects were trained to produce a single target alone. The purpose was to determine whether a problem-solving approach might identify processing conditions that favor veridical self-report following training on a feedback task. (Supported by A0132 from NSERC of Canada)
- ItemVisceral learning as problem solving(North Holland, 1982) Roberts, Larry E.; Marlin, Richard G.; Keleher, B.; Williams, Robert J.One purpose of this paper is to describe some experiments that have examined what subjects learn about a visceral target as a consequence of training on a feedback task. Initially this research was undertaken to explore the proposition (implicit in Brcner, 1974a) that control of the viscera is possible only when subjects have learned to recognize events associated with the production of target behavior. Subsequent efforts to explain current findings have led us to employ a tentative theoretical framework for the study of learning mechanisms that bears greater resemblance to analyses of human problem solving than to motor skills and other models that currently dominate the visceral learning literature (Schwartz and Beatty, 1977). A second purpose of this paper is to briefly describe this framework.
- ItemAwareness of the Response After Feedback Training for Changes in Heart Rate and Sudomotor Laterality(American Psychological Association, 1984) Roberts, Larry E.; Williams, Robert J.; Marlin, Richard G.; Farrell, Therese; Imiolo, DanielWhat is the relation between (a) the ability to control visceral responding on a biofeedback task and (b) the ability to report behaviors actually contributing to this performance? Subjects received biofeedback training for unidentified visceral responses and then gave written reports about what they had done to control the feedback displays. Independent judges were given these reports and, on the basis of knowledge about activities known to contribute to visceral activity, were asked to determine the visceral responses for which the subjects had been trained. The reports of subjects who succeeded at bidirectional control of heart rate (Experiment 1) or sudomotor laterality (Experiment 2) showed awareness of behaviors related to feedback as assessed by this procedure, whereas the reports of subjects who failed at bidirectional control did not. Subsequent experiments indicated that these results did not depend on a learning strategy that might have been specific to the initial studies. These findings call into question the view that people are unaware of what they have done to produce the response after training on biofeedback tasks. Earlier studies reporting lack of awareness in biofeedback are discussed in light of factors that affect the measurement of biofeedback learning and response awareness.
- ItemRelation of Learned Heart Rate Control to Self-Report in Different Task Environments(Blackwell Publishing, 1988) Williams, Robert J.; Roberts, Larry E.A widely-expressed view based on early studies of the verbal report in biofeedback holds that response awareness is unnecessary for learned control of visceral responding. However, more recent evidence has questioned this view. This article reports two experiments that analyzed verbal reports with the methods of recent studies while examining procedural differences between early and recent research. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of bidirectional versus unidirectional training on heart rate control and self-report. Experiment 2 examined heart rate control and self-report in two task environments that differed with regard to whether somatomotor action was afforded or allowed. No instances of response learning without response awareness were observed in either experiment, even when task environments approximating those of the early biofeedhack studies were used. The results support viewpoints of biofeedback that assign a role to response awareness in the development of instructed control.
- ItemChildbearing Cambodian Refugee Women(The Canadian Nurse, 1988) Kulig, Judith CeleneThe goal of this study was to discover cultural knowledge held by Cambodian refugee women in regard to conception and fetal development and how this might relate to birth control use and prenatal care. Maternal-child issues are important due to the higher than average birth rate in this population.
- ItemHuman sex ratio as it relates to caloric availability(Society for the Study of Social Biology, 1992) Williams, Robert J.; Gloster, Susan P.The relationship between human sex ratios at birth and caloric availability per capita was examined across different countries. Significant positive correlations were obtained between the amount of food a country had available and the percentage of male births. Furthermore, increases or decreases in a country's caloric availability were related to corresponding changes in that country's sex ratio. These results provide evidence of adaptive sex ratio biasing in humans. The physiological mechanism by which this effect operates is probably higher mortality rates for male embryos and fetuses as a result of nutritional deficiencies and associated stressors.
- ItemFrequency of seasonal affective disorder among individuals seeking treatment at a northern Canadian mental health centre(Elsevier, 1993) Williams, Robert J.; Schmidt, Glen G.The frequency of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) was examined in clients receiving treatment for recurrent mood disturbances in a northern Canadian site. Approximately one-fifth of these individuals were identified as having SAD using file histories and a statistical criterion as the basis for assessment. The failure to find a higher prevalence rate at this latitude may be due to other studies' reliance on client self-report, a tendency for individuals with SAD to relocate south, or a greater tendency for SAD to be seen by general practitioners and alcohol treatment centres in the north.
- ItemCommunity Assessment of the Kanadier (Mexican) Mennonites: Final Report(Regional Centre for Health Promotion and Community Studies, University of Lethbridge, 1995) Kulig, Judith Celene; University of Lethbridge. Regional Centre for Health PromotionA needs assessment was completed with the target group, the Kanadier Mennonites. This assessment was successfully completed through a partnership between the School of Nursing, University of Lethbridge Advanced Community Nursing class, the Barons- Eureka-Warner (BEW) Health Unit (now part of the Chinook Regional Health Authority) and the Mennonite Central Committee local office, the Kanadier Concerns. Thirteen student teams conducted interviews with 22 key informants and 44 household informants. Male and female interpreters, fluent in English and Low German, were used as translators and cultural interpreters. The limitations include the inability to randomize the sample, the need to use interpreters which may have led to a loss in understanding, the misinterpretation by the student teams of some of the questions, or the in accurate completion of the demographic information sheets by some of the student teams.
- ItemThe concepts of resiliency: Theoretical lessons from community research(Health and Canadian Society, 1996) Brown, David D.; Kulig, Judith CeleneResiliency is a concept for which both its appeal and frustration comes from the elasticity of its meaning. The idea of resiliency commonly has been found in areas of human development and psychopathology, there is now an increased interest in extending its application. Community resiliency is increasingly a central element in public health policies and programs. In what follows, we strive to identify some central theoretical issues that arise when the concept of resiliency is applied to communities. Our purpose is to work through these issues in a way that clarifies the concept by bringing together useful, though otherwise disparate, strands from the research literature.
- ItemA Qualitative Study to Determine the Impact of Caregiver Education and Support Groups(Perspectives: Journal of the Gerontological Nursing Association, 1997) Hagen, Brad F.; Gallagher, Elaine M.This article describes an alternative approach to evaluating a program involving support groups for family caregivers, using focus group interviews conducted three months following a 10-week program. This was one component of a larger evaluation of the Supporting Caregivers in British Columbia (SCBC) program, funded by the B.C. Ministry of Health.
- ItemHealth care for the Mexican Mennonites in Canada(The Canadian Nurse, 1998) McCaslin, C.; Kulig, Judith CeleneThe basic story of Canadian Mennonites is well known: During the centuries since the founding of the Mennonite church in Holland in the 1500s, religious persecution has led to group migration throughout Europe and to North America. Mennonites who came to Canada settled mainly in southern Ontario and the western provinces, where they maintained their religious practices, language, education and agrarian lifestyle. Less well known is that, in the 1920s, when the Canadian government mandated that all schools must use the provincial school curricula, some conservative Mennonites chose to leave Canada for Mexico, where they had been promised religious and educational freedom.
- ItemExperiencing Community Development: Research-based Insights for Gerontological Nurses(Perspectives: Journal of the Gerontological Nursing Association, 1999) Hagen, Brad F.; Gallagher, Elaine M.This paper will include an overview of some of the characteristics of community development and a description of the community development project. The methods used to evaluate the project will be presented along with results of the qualitative evaluation. Finally, some insights and implications are offered for gerontological nurses who may be engaged in similar community development projects involving older persons.
- ItemThe Role of Psychological Tests in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome(Fernwood Publishing, 1999) Williams, Robert J.The assessment of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is made when there is evidence of alcohol use during pregnancy; growth deficiencies; characteristic facial features; and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Psychological tests have two main roles with respect to FAS. The first is helping in the assessment of CNS dysfunction through the use of tests that measure a child's functional capabilities. Functional skill assessment is particularly useful for FAE because CNS impairment can and usually does occur in the absence of growth, physical or facial abnormalities (Clarren, Bowden, & Astley 1985). The second main role of psychological tests is in helping identify the person's pattern of strengths and weaknesses for treatment planning and prognosis. Both of these roles will be described in the following sections.
- ItemBooking clients for addiction treatment: What works best?(Canadian Nurses Association, 1999-04) Davis, Mary E.; Williams, Robert J.; Goodale, Leslie A.A final investigation attempted to determine whether the somewhat lower show-up rates after the Engaged intake could be a result of this procedure actually being therapeutic, thus decreasing the person's distress and need for treatment. This possibility was investigated by examining clinician ratings of the severity of the person's alcohol problems, drug problems and psychological problems when they came in for their assessment.
- ItemIncidence of fetal alcohol syndrome in northeastern Manitoba(Canadian Journal of Public Health, 1999-05) Williams, Robert J.; Odaibo, Felix S.; McGee, Janet M.The incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in northeastern Manitoba was investigated by examining all 745 live births occurring in Thompson General Hospital in 1994. Birth records were screened with criteria designed to capture all potential FAS cases. Cases were then eliminated if follow-up records indicated the child was not developmentally delayed or no longer had the small head or body size identified at birth. Cases still meeting criteria were personally examined. Five cases of FAS were identified among the 46% of eligible children screened at age 2, roughly an incidence of 7.2/ 1,000. However, because only 46% of the high risk cases were personally examined, incidence could be as high as 14.8/ 1,000. Only 1/5 FAS cases had been identified prior to our investigation. The results indicate the incidence of FAS in northeastern Manitoba is very high and that much greater effort needs to be made in its prevention and early detection.
- ItemKnowledge of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Natives in Northern Manitoba(Rutgers University, 1999-11) Williams, Robert J.; Gloster, Susan P.Objective: To investigate knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) among Natives in northern Manitoba. A second objective was to determine if there are age or gender differences in level of knowledge. A third objective was to examine the relationship between knowledge about FAS and reported frequency of drug and alcohol use during pregnancy. Method: A nonrandom sample of 466 Natives from northern Manitoba was interviewed about drug and alcohol use during pregnancy and knowledge of FAS. The sample was proportionately representative of the 26 northern reserves, with an approximately equal number of male and female subjects ranging in age from 13 to 71 years. Results: Northern Manitoban Natives have lower levels of FAS knowledge than the general public. Of this sample, 80% believed drinking alcohol could adversely affect the unborn baby and 36% had heard of FAS, compared to 90% and 64%, respectively, in the general U.S. population. Natives in their 20s and 30s were more knowledgeable than Natives in their 50s and 60s. Females tended to be more knowledgeable than males. Drug and alcohol use during pregnancy is high (51% of women report drinking during one or more pregnancies) and the relationship between FAS knowledge and drug use during pregnancy appears weak. Young people were the most knowledgeable about FAS but also the most likely to report having used drugs or alcohol during pregnancy. Conclusions: The low levels of knowledge about FAS among the Native population supports the need for continued education. However, the results also suggest that education by itself may be insufficient to make dramatic changes in behavior. (J. Stud. Alcohol 60: 833-836, 1999)
- ItemFrom authenticity to thick description and externalizing the problem: A turn to narrative therapy in working with people dealing with schizophrenia(International Disability Research Centre, 2000) Nixon, GaryThe author noticed that his existential-humanistic counselling approach with its focus on authenticity and self-actualization seemed to be counter-productive in working with people dealing with schizophrenia issues. This noticing precipitated a turn to narrative therapy with its focus on people telling preferred stories of their own lives, moving towards thick rather than thin descriptions, and recognizing that people are not their problems. A case example of working with a person with schizophrenia issues is given to show how externalizing the problem can free extensive personal resources and strengths in defeating the problem. The author concludes with some personal reflections on his turn to narrative therapy.
- ItemA Comprehensive and Comparative Review of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome(Blackwell Publishing, 2000) Williams, Robert J.; Chang, Samuel Y.There are relatively few studies on adolescent substance abuse treatment. The ones that exist tend to be methodologically weak. Methodologically stronger studies have usually found most adolescents receiving treatment to have significant reductions in substance use and problems in other life areas in the year following treatment. Average rate of sustained abstinence after treatment is 38% (range 30-55) at 6 months and 32% at 12 months (range 14-47). Variables most consistently related to successful outcome are treatment completion, low pre-treatment substance use, and peer/parent social support/nonuse of substances. There is evidence that treatment is superior to no treatment, but insufficient evidence to compare the effectiveness of treatment types. The exception to this is that outpatient family therapy appears superior to other forms of outpatient treatment.
- ItemRecent research in the socio-cultural domain of gaming and gambling: An annotated bibliography and critical overview(Alberta Gaming Research Institute, 2000-12) McGowan, Virginia Margaret; Droessler, Judith; Nixon, Gary; Grimshaw, MistyThe purpose of this overview is to systematically identify and critically analyze the relevant scientific, descriptive, and policy-oriented literature in this area with the aim of providing a resource that will inform future research and development in gaming and gambling studies. Accordingly, this review constitutes a source document on gaming and gambling studies produced in the latter part of the twentieth century in English- and French-speaking countries. Studies are included that examine the distribution and patterning of gaming and gambling among population sub-groups; social structural factors influencing those patterns within the context of traditional and emerging norms, values and beliefs; and social impacts of gaming and gambling. Literature produced between 1980 and 2000 in North America, Europe, and non-European Commonwealth countries is included, as well as (in the critical overview) a summary of gaming and gambling among Blackfoot peoples, as recorded in ethnographic studies available through the electronic version of the Human Relations Area Files (eHRAF). A range of studies representing different methods and disciplines were included as this material was found in both published and unpublished (“grey literature”) forms. Materials were included if they were judged by the project team to comprise a significant contribution to the literature in this domain.