Browsing Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal (LURJ) by Issue Date
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- ItemColeridge's "Kubla Khan":Creation of Genius or Addiction?(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Mahar, Karen E.
- ItemTreatment Efficacy for Female Offenders(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Jespersen, AshleyThe treatment of female offenders is becoming an increasingly important issue. The number of federally incarcerated adult female offenders in Canada increased by approximately 75% from 1981 to 2002 (Correctional Service of Canada, 2002). In the United States the number of female inmates under correctional supervision escalated from 410, 300 in 1986 to 895, 300 in 1997 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2001). In the past, we have considered male and female inmates to have similar treatment needs, but as we become aware of the increasing numbers and differing needs of female offenders we must reevaluate available treatment programs and begin to implement program revisions. In this paper I will discuss the needs of female offenders, the goals of treatment, the components of effective and successful treatment programs, and describe and evaluate current programs available to female offenders.
- ItemAmbivalence towards Empire in King Solomon's Mines(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Vossebelt, JorinaChildren's Literature of the Nineteenth Century was often used to promote imperialist or nationalist ideas, as is evident in H. Rider Haggard's novel King Solomon's Mines. This paper examines Haggard's personal convictions and their manifestation in his narrative with regards to colonialism and imperialism in Africa. It deals with the image of the superstitious, ignorant savages contrasted with the effects of imperialism on the noble savages.
- ItemCharity as the Perfection of Natural Friendship in Aquinas' Summa Theologiae(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Ney, PhilipIn contrast to many of today's sectarian religious figures, Thomas Aquinas was interested in engaging the best of secular philosophy; seeing what his tradition could gain from philosophy and how his tradition could contribute to philosophy. Speaking from within the Christian tradition, he offers helpful insights that contribute to our understanding of Aristotle. Aquinas' writings are largely devoted to the project of demonstrating that the works of Aristotle are complementary to, and in agreement with, Christianity. The excerpts of Summa Theologiae examined in this paper deal with friendship and are a sample of Aquinas' larger project. This paper examines how Aquinas undertakes to reconcile the Christian idea of charity (love for enemies) with Aristotle's conception of preferential friendship. Aquinas' finding is that in Christian charity, the classical understanding of friendship has been perfected by grace.
- ItemStuck in the Bottle:Vodka in Russia 1863-1925(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research journal, 2006-04) Andreasen, Bryce D.This paper looks at how Vodka has played a role in Russian society, specifically in the years immediately before and after the Revolution which toppled the monarchy of Tsar Nicholas II. It looks at Vodka and how it related to a number of different aspects of Russia such as: Social life, the workplace, the military, government, and the Prohibition and its subsequent end. This paper looks at these different aspects of society and how Vodka became ingrained within Russian society, and how even the mighty Bolshevik party could not eliminate vodka from the society.
- ItemEditorial(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Gajetzki, AndyDear Readers, Thank you very much for your interest in the Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal. I will begin this first issue by extending my personal thanks to all those who have been involved in making this release come to life. This includes the authors themselves, without whom we would not have an issue, the editors and reviewers, who have spent many hours in front of computer monitors reading all the submissions that we have received, and the faculty advisers who have lent us their knowledge, expertise, and time, for little in return. I hope the experience has been a pleasurable one for everyone.
- Item"When Epimethus oped the locks":The Scatological Verses of Jonathan Swift as Statements of Misandry(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Sexsmith, Melissa M.Jonathan Swift, one of the most famous satirists in the English canon, is renowned for his misogyny and his general misanthropy is infamous; some of the most reviled allegedly antifeminine works he produced are included among a small collection of poems composed by him in the 1730s, known as the "scatological verses." Each of these poems deals with the ostensibly degrading topic of women's bodily functions. Each presents women in a decidedly unsavoury manner, according to the predominant contemporaneous conventions. However, upon closer examination, it is revealed that the victim of Swift's ruthless satires may not in fact be woman, but rather, man. Through his expressions of "pity" toward the impractical male "heroes" of the poems, and his deliberate inversion of imagery in the Hesiodic myth of Pandora (placing the blame squarely on Epimetheus' shoulders), Swift endeavours to illustrate that the contemporaneous patriarchal culture and its unrealistic standards of femininity are deeply flawed.
- ItemFemale Aggression and Evolutionary Theory(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) McLaughlin, CydneEvolutionists have long argued that more aggressive and more physically fit males that could fight off competition and control sexual access to their female mate(s) were more successful at passing on their genes. As a result male aggression towards other males and even towards females has been argued as being an evolved tactic to gain access to mates and to ensure paternity of offspring. Males are thought to engage primarily in intrasexual competition for mates while females engage in epigamic display, demonstrating characteristics thought to be desirable to the opposite sex, to attract mates (Campbell, 1995). This kind of theorizing portrays males' evolution as active whereas females' evolution is passive. Males evolve through competition whereas females evolve through mate selection.
- ItemThe Shaping of Canadian Foreign Policy:1945-1957(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Matwychuk-Goodman, CurtisThe years between 1945 and 1957 represent a time period in which Canadian foreign policy emerged. It was during this time that Canada became a truly sovereign and autonomous nation, and was beginning to receive recognition on the international stage. Issues to be examined include: transformation of Canadian foreign policy from heavy dependence on Britain to becoming an autonomous function of the domestic government; the increase in involvement in multilateral organizations, and how the instability of these encouraged the diversification of external policies; the effects of internal influences, mainly changing domestic governments, and that of external influences, including allies and enemies; and the effects of the Suez crisis in 1956 and how the fundamentals of Canadian foreign policy materialized.
- ItemThe Reclassification of Sugar as a Drug(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Lyle, Marie-HélèneSugar is traditionally classified as a food “used to improve the palatability of many foods” (ISMA, 2005). As such, it is the “cheapest instant source of energy” (ISMA, 2005) containing no nutritional value. Recent research, however, has proven that “under select dietary circumstances, sugar can have effects similar to a drug of abuse”(Rada, Avena & Hoebel, 2005). There are other health risks as well: as Hunt (1999, p. 18) argues, “The average American consumes his weight in sugar every year (152 pounds),” leading to complications such as cavities, mood swings, and weight gain, or to more serious complications such as diabetes. 1 As a result, it is increasingly difficult to ignore the powerful negative affects sugar may have on the physiology and psychology of consumers. In this paper, I will argue that sugar in fact has many drug-like properties that need to be taken into consideration when classifying this substance purely as a food in order to understand the benefits and dangers of sugar to our minds and bodies.
- ItemNative American Women, Past, Present and Future(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Popick, JacquiNative American women traditionally belonged to a culture that gave them respect and where they had power, autonomy and equality. Through the last hundred years and due to European colonization they have lost all that they had. Presently Aboriginal women suffer from a high rate of poverty. They also experience racism and sexism from Western cultures and have even lost respect from their own culture. European legislations, reserve life and residential schools have led to a loss of language, culture, family and self-esteem. But Native American women are the hope of the future for their culture. Native women are making visible efforts to renew traditions and to improve education, through self rule and by healing from within the culture itself. They are a strong group who will not quit fighting for their people because they are still the nurturers, counselors, spiritual and medical healers and providers of the First Nations People.
- ItemThe British Commonwealth Air Training Plan:1939-1945(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Aleman, BruceIn 1939, the Canadian government reached an agreement with Great Britain and other Commonwealth Dominions that created a monumental training regime within Canada's borders. The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan has been recognized by historians, politicians and economists as a tremendous contribution to the war effort, as it trained nearly 137 000 aircrew for service in the Second World War. The memory of the training plan is dwindling along with the old airfields and this paper seeks to recall the contribution by providing a descriptive overview of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.
- ItemTANF and the Libertarian and Communitarian Prescriptions to Poverty(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Fuller, DavidThis paper analyzes the libertarian and communitarian views of the welfare state and the proper responsibilities and limits of governmental action. In the middle of the 1990s, the Clinton administration administered systematic welfare reform with its central philosophy of temporary assistance and welfare for struggling families in order to facilitate them for reengagement into the work force and education. Such programs as The Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), the dynamics of welfare have changed since the era of the Great Society. With this policy in its first decade of existence, this paper focuses on both the theoretical and philosophical interpretations of the libertarian community and communitarian community.
- ItemAssessing Tsunami Hazard Along Vancouver Islands West Coast Using Viewshed Analysis(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Johnson, Davin R. E.Quick and reliable mapping of Tsunami hazard location and intensity is of great importance to mankind. The conventional methods for assessing these natural disasters rely on models that are both very time-consuming and costly. Unfortunately, these constraints give the models no possibility for evacuation planning to be used directly after a recorded event. This paper presents a new method using viewshed analysis for mapping the locations that will be affected by a Tsunami. The viewshed analysis was run from a hypothetical earthquake epicenter located 100km off the West Coast of Vancouver Island, BC, and overlain on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Vancouver Island. Results show that Vancouver Island as a whole is relatively safe from Tsunami attack, but some of the more popular regions for tourists would be greatly affected and in need of immediate evacuation.
- ItemNew Criticism:The Challenger, the Winner, and the Lasting Legacy(Lethbridge Undergradulate Research Journal, 2006-04) Butler, Glenn W.New Criticism emerged in the early twentieth century from a field of literary theory dominated by Marxism and Impressionism; it rejected both of these from its start. In a bold statement of purpose, J.E. Spingarn sketched out the essence of New Criticism when he strongly emphasized the need for literary theory to return to literature as its basis and its particular context, rather than bringing in outside, non-literary interests. Despite some noted New Critics adhering to this principle less consistently than others, New Criticism itself gained adherents quickly and eventually grew to dominate literary theory.
- ItemJane Austen, Persuasion, and the Pursuit of Happiness(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006-04) Tarlson, Claire EileenThis paper argues that there is a Romantic shift in the feminist and individualistic ideology of Jane Austen's work as her career progresses, and Austen begins to admire different cognitive qualities in her heroines. At the end of Pride and Prejudice, Elizabeth's confessed love for Darcy is a carefully reasoned one - Darcy has righted the wrongs cited in Elizabeth's original refusal and Elizabeth can justify her own acceptance of him by objective standards. Anne Elliot of Persuasion, by contrast, accepts Wentworth ultimately not on the basis of anything he has done differently,but merely by the realization of her own original emotions and motives as valid. Throughout the novel, Anne develops as this individual on her own, and by the time she finally marries Wentworth at the end of the novel, the marriage is not needed to complete her because she has already made her emotional transformation independent of the marriage proposal. The contextual frameworks for both of Jane Austen's novels Pride and Prejudice and Persuasion are so similar that they demand sideby- side comparison, but the heroines of these novels show a very different approach to characterizing the admirable woman. The evocation of Elizabeth by means of Anne's character serves to elucidate and cement this shift in Austen's tone and feminist worldview. The similarities juxtaposed with a discernible shift in the qualities of the heroine strongly suggest that Anne Elliot is a reworking of Elizabeth Bennet, and that the purpose of Persuasion is to reinvent Pride and Prejudice in a way shows Austen's reconsideration of the value and motives of marriage and gives even more intellectual and emotional credit to Persuasion's heroine. There exists a carefully crafted language of allusion in Austen's works, and especially between these two bookends of her career, which seem to serve almost as a privatized discourse for Austen's own benefit. In this way, Austen is showing her own shift into Romanticism, valuing the emotional over the reasonable, and how this shift should play out into the lives of women. Elizabeth is representative of women being capable and worthy to reason in the world of men, whereas Anne's individualism gives women something even more important in Austen's assertion of the validity and worth of female emotions.
- ItemDRM Effect: False Memories or False Responses(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2007-01) Kinley, JoleneMemory can be a tricky thing. The reconstructive nature of memory can lead to many problems. These problems are discussed in the context of the conflict over recovered memories of sexual abuse. The DRM paradigm is introduced and used to explore false memories. The current experiment modifies the typical DRM experiment by introducing a condition where the prototype is shown. Subjects were able to distinguish between prototypes shown and not shown as well as any other word type, however, they were biased strongly towards reporting that a prototype was old. There are two different interpretations of these results that are discussed and possible avenues to clarify the issue are suggested.
- ItemFreedom of the Press and Democracy in China(Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, 2007-01) Wartman, JefferyThis manuscript explores the recent historical developments in regards to the opening up of a more free press in China, and how a more free press and free exchange of ideas will foster more development of social Democracy in China, which has already instituted various economic Democratic reforms.