Scott, David

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    Fourteenth report of the Alberta Bird Record Committe
    (ABRC, 2023) Hudon, Jocelyn; Lambert, Caroline; Lein, M. Ross; Riddell, John; Romanchuk, Gerald; Ross, Andrew; Scott, David R.; Wershler, Ray
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    Association between sociodemographic factors and mobility limitation among older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
    (BioMed Central, 2023) Onyeso, Ogochukwu; Odole, Adesola C.; Scott, David R.; Akinrolie, Olayinka; Kalu, Michael E.; Awosoga, Olu
    Background Mobility is an independent predictor of physical functionality, healthy ageing, and quality of life. Various literatures have associated mobility limitation in older adulthood with demographic and socioeconomic factors. Hence, we propose a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesise the association between sociodemographic factors and mobility limitations in older adults. Methods and analyses This protocol was written according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. We will perform a comprehensive search of all observational studies that assessed the relationship between age, gender, race, place, education, income, occupation, social status, and walking distance, time, or speed. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, AgeLine, and SPORTDiscus) will be searched from inception to 28 February 2023. We will supplement the database search by manually searching the reference lists of all identified and relevant full-text articles. Two independent reviewers will be responsible for screening articles, data extraction, and assessment of bias. We will appraise the study quality and risk of bias using the Prediction Model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). A meta-analysis will be considered if data from the selected studies are homogeneous, otherwise, a narrative synthesis of the extracted data will be presented. Discussion Mobility limitation leads to frequent falls, dependency, morbidity, and death among older adults. This review is necessary, to identify and prioritise important sociodemographic factors during older adults’ clinical assessment and policy development. It is the first phase of a multi-methods study seeking to develop a prognostic mobility trajectory for community-dwelling older adults.
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    Nurses' perceptions of climate sensitive vector-borne diseases: a scoping review
    (Wiley, 2023) Vandenberg, Shannon Y.; Chircop, Andrea; Sedgwick, Monique; Scott, David R.
    Objective Nurses are well positioned to play an integral role in the mitigation of climate change and climate-driven vector-borne diseases, however, they lack awareness and knowledge about their role. The purpose of this scoping review was to map existing literature on nurses’ perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and experiences with vector-borne diseases, specifically Lyme disease and West Nile virus. Design A scoping review was conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) scoping review methodology. CINAHL, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Premium, MEDLINE, APA PsycINFO, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, and Web of Science were searched for English-language publications. The PRISMA-ScR was used. After initial screening as per study protocol, a total of 33 items were reviewed independently by four reviewers. Results Thirty-three articles, including seven sources from grey literature, met the criteria for this scoping review. Results were mapped according to the five domains of the Guidelines for Undergraduate Nursing Education on Climate-Driven Vector-Borne Diseases. Conclusions Findings from the review indicate that nurses play a role in climate-related health effects and should be knowledgeable about vector-borne diseases. However, scant literature exists on nurses’ knowledge, perceptions, attitudes toward vector-borne diseases, and practice readiness, signifying a need for further research on this emerging topic.
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    Effectiveness of live health professional-led group eHealth interventions for adult mental health: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    (JMIR Publications, 2022) Currie, Cheryl L.; Larouche, Richard; Voss, Lauren; Trottier, Maegan; Spiwak, Rae; Higa, Erin; Scott, David R.; Tallow, Treena
    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse impacts on mental health and substance use worldwide. Systematic reviews suggest eHealth interventions can be effective at addressing these problems. However, strong positive eHealth outcomes are often tied to the intensity of web-based therapist guidance, which has time and cost implications that can make the population scale-up of more effective interventions difficult. A way to offset cost while maintaining the intensity of therapist guidance is to offer eHealth programs to groups rather than more standard one-on-one formats. Objective: This systematic review aims to assess experimental evidence for the effectiveness of live health professional–led group eHealth interventions on mental health, substance use, or bereavement among community-dwelling adults. Within the articles selected for our primary aim, we also seek to examine the impact of interventions that encourage physical activity compared with those that do not. Methods: Overall, 4 databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library) were searched in July 2020. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of eHealth interventions led by health professionals and delivered entirely to adult groups by videoconference, teleconference, or webchat. Eligible studies reported mental health, substance use, or bereavement as primary outcomes. The results were examined by outcome, eHealth platform, and intervention length. Postintervention data were used to calculate effect size by study. The findings were summarized using the Synthesis Without Meta-Analysis guidelines. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Tool. Results: Of the 4099 identified studies, 21 (0.51%) RCTs representing 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined mental health outcomes among 2438 participants (sample size range: 47-361 participants per study) across 7 countries. When effect sizes were pooled, live health professional–led group eHealth interventions had a medium effect on reducing anxiety compared with inactive (Cohen d=0.57) or active control (Cohen d=0.48), a medium to small effect on reducing depression compared with inactive (Cohen d=0.61) or active control (Cohen d=0.21), and mixed effects on mental distress and coping. Interventions led by videoconference, and those that provided 8-12 hours of live health professional–led group contact had more robust effects on adult mental health. Risk of bias was high in 91% (19/21) of the studies. Heterogeneity across interventions was significant, resulting in low to very low quality of evidence. No eligible RCT was found that examined substance use, bereavement, or physical activity. Conclusions: Live eHealth group interventions led by health professionals can foster moderate improvements in anxiety and moderate to small improvements in depression among community-based adults, particularly those delivered by videoconference and those providing 8-12 hours of synchronous engagement.
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    Data-sharing practices in publications funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research: a descriptive analysis
    (Canadian Medical Association, 2021) Read, Kevin B.; Ganshorn, Heather; Rutley, Sarah; Scott, David R.
    Background: As Canada increases requirements for research data management and sharing, there is value in identifying how research data are shared and what has been done to make them findable and reusable. This study aimed to understand Canada’s data-sharing landscape by reviewing how data funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) are shared and comparing researchers’ data-sharing practices to best practices for research data management and sharing. Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of CIHR-funded publications from PubMed and PubMed Central published between 1946 and Dec. 31, 2019, that indicated that the research data underlying the results of the publication were shared. We analyzed each publication to identify how and where data were shared, who shared data and what documentation was included to support data reuse. Results: Of 4144 CIHR-funded publications identified, 1876 (45.2%) included accessible data, 935 (22.6%) stated that data were available via request or application, and 300 (7.2%) stated that data sharing was not applicable or possible; we found no evidence of data sharing in 1558 publications (37.6%). Frequent data-sharing methods included via a repository (1549 [37.4%]), within supplementary files (1048 [25.3%]) and via request or application (935 [22.6%]). Overall, 554 publications (13.4%) included documentation that would facilitate data reuse. Interpretation: Publications funded by the CIHR largely lack the metadata, access instructions and documentation to facilitate data discovery and reuse. Without measures to address these concerns and enhanced support for researchers seeking to implement best practices for research data management and sharing, much CIHR-funded research data will remain hidden, inaccessible and unusable.