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- ItemCalibration of Herschel SPIRE FTS observations at different spectral resolutions(Oxford University Press, 2017) Marchili, N.; Hopwood, R.; Fulton, T.; Polehampton, E. T.; Valtchanov, I.; Zaretski, J.; Naylor, David A.; Griffin, M. J.; Imhof, P.; Lim, T.; Lu, N.; Makiwa, G.; Pearson, C.; Spencer, L.The SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer on-board the Herschel Space Observatory had two standard spectral resolution modes for science observations: high resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR), which could also be performed in sequence (H+LR). A comparison of the HR and LR resolution spectra taken in this sequential mode revealed a systematic discrepancy in the continuum level. Analysing the data at different stages during standard pipeline processing demonstrates that the telescope and instrument emission affect HR and H+LR observations in a systematically different way. The origin of this difference is found to lie in the variation of both the telescope and instrument response functions, while it is triggered by fast variation of the instrument temperatures. As it is not possible to trace the evolution of the response functions using housekeeping data from the instrument subsystems, the calibration cannot be corrected analytically. Therefore, an empirical correction for LR spectra has been developed, which removes the systematic noise introduced by the variation of the response functions.
- ItemCalibration of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer(Oxford University Press, 2014) Swinyard, B. M.; Polehampton, E. T.; Hopwood, R.; Valtchanov, I.; Lu, N.; Fulton, T.; Benielli, D.; Imhof, P.; Marchili, N.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Bendo, G. J.; Ferlet, M.; Griffin, M. J.; Lim, T. L.; Makiwa, G.; Naylor, David A.; Orton, G. S.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Schulz, B.; Sidher, S. D.; Spencer, L. D.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wu, R.The Herschel Spectral and Photometric REceiver (SPIRE) instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of∼450–1550GHz. In this paper, we brieﬂy review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a spatially extended source and uses the Herschel telescopeasprimarycalibrator.Conversionfromextendedtopoint-sourcecalibrationiscarried out using observations of the planet Uranus. The model of the telescope emission is shown to beaccuratetowithin6percent andrepeatable tobetterthan0.06percent and,bycomparison with models of Mars and Neptune, the Uranus model is shown to be accurate to within 3 per cent. Multiple observations of a number of point-like sources show that the repeatability of the calibration is better than 1 per cent, if the effects of the satellite absolute pointing error (APE) are corrected. The satellite APE leads to a decrement in the derived ﬂux, which can be up to∼10 per cent (1 σ) at the high-frequency end of the SPIRE range in the ﬁrst part of the mission, and∼4 per cent after Herschel operational day 1011. The lower frequency range of the SPIRE band is unaffected by this pointing error due to the larger beam size. Overall, for well-pointed, point-like sources, the absolute ﬂux calibration is better than 6 per cent, and for extended sources where mapping is required it is better than 7 per cent.
- ItemCorrecting the extended-source calibration for the Herschel SPIRE Fourier-transform spectrometer(Oxford University Press, 2017) Valtchanov, I.; Hopwood, R.; Bendo, G.; Benson, C.; Conversi, L.; Fulton, T.; Griffin, M. J.; Joubaud, T.; Lim, T.; Lu, N.; Marchili, N.; Makiwa, G.; Meyer, R. A.; Naylor, David A.; North, C.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C.; Polehampton, E. T.; Scott, J.; Schulz, B.; Spencer, L. D.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wu, R.We describe an update to the Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) calibration for extended sources, which incorporates a correction for the frequency-dependent far-ﬁeld feedhorn efﬁciency, ηff. This signiﬁcant correction affects all FTS extended-source calibrated spectra in sparse or mapping mode, regardless of the spectral resolution. Line ﬂuxes and continuum levels are underestimated by factors of 1.3–2 in the spectrometer long wavelength band (447–1018 GHz; 671–294 µm) and 1.4–1.5 in the spectrometer short wavelength band (944–1568 GHz; 318–191 µm). The correctionwasimplementedintheFTSpipelineversion14.1andhasalsobeendescribedinthe SPIRE Handbook since 2017 February. Studies based on extended-source calibrated spectra produced prior to this pipeline version should be critically reconsidered using the current products available in the Herschel Science Archive. Once the extended-source calibrated spectra are corrected for ηff, the synthetic photometry and the broad-band intensities from SPIRE photometer maps agree within 2–4percent – similar levels to the comparison of point-source calibrated spectra and photometry from point-source calibrated maps. The two calibration schemes for the FTS are now self-consistent: the conversion between the corrected extended-source and point-source calibrated spectra can be achieved with the beam solid angle and a gain correction that accounts for the diffraction loss.
- ItemFar-infrared/submillimetre properties of pre-stellar cores L1521E, L1521F and L1689B as revealed by the Herschel SPIRE instrument - I. Central positions(Oxford University Press, 2016) Makiwa, G.; Naylor, David A.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.; Eyres, S.; Abergel, A.; Köhler, M.Dust grains play a key role in the physics of star-forming regions, even though they constitute only ∼1 per cent of the mass of the interstellar medium. The derivation of accurate dust parameters such as temperature (Td), emissivity spectral index (β) and column density requires broad-band continuum observations at far-infrared wavelengths. We present Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver Array (SPIRE) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of three starless cores: L1521E, L1521F and L1689B, covering wavelengths between 194 and 671 µm. This paper is the ﬁrst to use our recently updated SPIRE-FTS intensity calibration, yielding a direct match with SPIRE photometer measurements of extended sources. In addition, we carefully assess the validity of calibration schemes depending on-source extent and on the strength of background emission. The broad-band far-infrared spectra for all three sources peak near 250 µm. Our observations therefore provide much tighter constraints on the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape than measurements that do not probe the SED peak. The spectra are ﬁtted using modiﬁed blackbody functions, allowing both Td and β to vary as free parameters.This yields Td of9.8±0.2,15.6±0.5and10.9±0.2K and corresponding β of 2.6∓0.9, 0.8∓0.1 and 2.4∓0.8 for L1521E, L1521F and L1689B, respectively.Thederivedcoremassesare1.0±0.1,0.10±0.01and0.49±0.05M ,respectively. The core mass/Jeans mass ratios for L1521E and L1689B exceed unity indicating that they are unstable to gravitational collapse, and thus pre-stellar cores. By comparison, the elevated temperature and gravitational stability of L1521F support previous arguments that this source is more evolved and likely a protostar.
- ItemSignatures of warm carbon monoxide in protoplanetary discs observed with Herschel SPIRE(Oxford University Press, 2014) van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Naylor, David A.; Kamp, I.; Ménard, F.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.; Olofsson, G.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Di Francesco, J.; Glauser, A. M.; Greaves, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.Molecular gas constitutes the dominant mass component of protoplanetary discs. To date, these sources have not been studied comprehensively at the longest far-infrared and shortest submillimetre wavelengths. This paper presents Herschel SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations towards 18 protoplanetary discs, covering the entire 450–1540GHz (666–195 μm) range at ν/ ν ≈ 400–1300. The spectra reveal clear detections of the dust continuum and, in six targets, a signiﬁcant amount of spectral line emission primarily attributable to 12CO rotational lines. Other targets exhibit little to no detectable spectral lines. Low signal-to-noise detections also include signatures from 13CO, [CI] and HCN. For completeness, we present upper limits of non-detected lines in all targets, including low-energy transitions of H2O and CH+ molecules. The 10 12CO lines that fall within the SPIRE FTS bands trace energy levels of ∼50–500K. Combined with lower and higher energy lines from the literature, we compare the CO rotational line energy distribution with detailed physical–chemical models, for sources where these are available and published. Our 13CO line detections in the disc around Herbig Be star HD 100546 exceed, by factors of ∼10–30, the values predicted by a model that matches a wealth of other observational constraints, including the SPIRE 12COladder. To explain the observed 12CO/13COratio, it may be necessary to consider the combined effects of optical depth and isotope selective (photo)chemical processes. Considering the full sample of 18 objects, we ﬁnd that the strongest line emission is observed in discs around Herbig Ae/Be stars, although not all show line emission. In addition, two of the six T Tauri objects exhibit detectable 12CO lines in the SPIRE range.