Influence of sport type and gender on bone turnover markers in young athletes

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Apiloki, Joy O.
Aje, Oluwakayode S.
Awotidebe, Taofeek O.
Okhawere, Martin I.
Mbada, Chidozie E.
Onyeso, Ogochukwu, K.
Idomeh, Festus A.
Adagbusi, Charles O.
Oke, Kayode I.
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Background Exercise is beneficial to bone health. However, little is known about the interaction effect of gender and sport type on bone turnover in young athletes. This study aimed to examine the influence of gender and sports categories (high, medium, and low impact) on bone turnover: reabsorption markers–osteocalcin, calcium, inorganic phosphate (IP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and resorption marker–cross-linked N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen (NTx) among a university’s undergraduate athletes. Methods The study was an ex-post facto design involving forty-seven purposively recruited gender- and sporttype- matched undergraduate athletes whose demographic characteristics and BMI were obtained. Participants’ 5 mL antecubital blood samples were collected and analysed for serum levels of osteocalcin, calcium, IP, ALP, and NTx using standard laboratory protocols, Bio-Tek spectrometer, and KC4 (3.3) software. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and two-way ANOVA. Results The study involved 24 females and 23 males (n = 47) aged 22.15 ± 3.35 years with an average BMI of 23.34 ± 4.66. There was no significant gender effect on the biomarkers. However, there was a significant effect of the sports category on IP (F = 4.307, p = 0.020), calcium (F = 6.807, p = 0.003), and ALP serum levels (F = 11.511, p < 0.001). Specifically, mid-impact sports participants had a higher IP than the low-impact group (mean difference [MD] = 0.81 mg/dL, p = 0.036). Low-impact had a higher calcium level than mid-impact (MD = 0.40 mg/dL, p = 0.022) and high-impact (MD = 0.49 mg/dL, p = 0.003). Conversely, low-impact had lower ALP than mid-impact (MD = − 11.13 U/L, p = 0.013) and high-impact (MD = − 17.44 IU/L, p < 0.001). Conclusion Moderate to high-impact sports positively affected bone turnover in young athletes. However, gender had no significant impact.
Open access article. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0) applies
Bone remodeling , Biomarkers , Sports participation , Undergraduates , Sports impact , Bone turnover , Young athletes , Undergraduate athletes
Apiloko, J. O., Aje, O. S, Awotidebe, T. O., Okhawere, M. I., Mbada, C. E., Onyeso, O. K., Idomeh, F. A., Adagbusi, C. O., & Oke, K. I. (2023). Influence of sport type and gender on bone turnover markers in young athletes. Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy, 28, Article no. 37.