Molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced bystander effects in vivo

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Koturbash, Igor
University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science
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Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Arts and Science, 2008
Ionizing radiation (IR), along with being an important diagnostic and treatment modality, is a potent tumor-causing agent, and the risk of secondary radiation treatment-related cancers is a growing clinical problem. Now some studies propose to link secondary radiation-induced cancers to an enigmatic phenomenon of bystander effects, whereby the exposed cells send signal damage and distress to their naïve neighbors and result in genome destabilization and carcinogenesis. Yet, no data existed on the bystander effects in an organ other than an exposed one. With this in mind, we focused on the analysis of existence and mechanisms of radiation-induced bystander effects in vivo. We have found that bystander effects occur in vivo in distant skin and spleen following half-body or cranial irradiation. These bystander effects resulted in elevated DNA damage, profound dysregulation of epigenetic machinery, and pronounced alterations in apoptosis, proliferation and gene expression. Bystander effects also exhibited persistency and sex specificity. The results obtained while using the animal model systems can potentially be extrapolated to different animals and humans.
xiii, 208 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Dissertations, Academic , Ionizing radiation -- Health aspects , Radiation carcinogenesis -- Animal models , Radiation carcinogenesis , DNA -- Effect of radiation on