- ItemDeterminants of outdoor time in children and youth: a systematic review of longitudinal and intervention studies(MDPI, 2023) Larouche, Richard; Kleinfeld, Madeline; Rodriguez, Ulises Charles; Hatten, Cheryl; Hecker, Victoria; Scott, David R.; Brown, Leanna Marie; Onyeso, Ogochukwu K.; Sadia, Farzana; Shimamura, HanakoSpending more time outdoors can improve children’s social and cognitive development, physical activity, and vision. Our systematic review summarized the determinants of outdoor time (OT) based on the social-ecological model. We searched nine databases: MEDLINE, APA PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, SocINDEX, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. To be included, studies needed to be quantitative and longitudinal, include ≥1 potential determinant of OT among 0- to 17-year-olds, and be published in English, French, Japanese, or Spanish. We extracted the authors, publication year, country, design, sample size, OT measures, follow-up period, potential determinants, main results, and potential moderators or mediators. Fifty-five studies examining 119 potential determinants met the inclusion criteria. OT was consistently higher in warmer seasons and among participants reporting more OT at baseline. All three interventions that included both parent sessions and additional resources to promote OT (e.g., specific advice and community guides) were effective. COVID-19 restrictions and sun safety interventions discouraging midday outdoor activities led to less OT. The quality of evidence was rated as weak for 46 studies. Most potential determinants were examined in ≤3 studies; thus, more longitudinal studies are needed to enable stronger conclusions about the consistency of evidence and meta-analyses.
- ItemEffectiveness of live health professional-led group eHealth interventions for adult mental health: systematic review of randomized controlled trials(JMIR Publications, 2022) Currie, Cheryl L.; Larouche, Richard; Voss, Lauren; Trottier, Maegan; Spiwak, Rae; Higa, Erin; Scott, David R.; Tallow, TreenaBackground: The COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse impacts on mental health and substance use worldwide. Systematic reviews suggest eHealth interventions can be effective at addressing these problems. However, strong positive eHealth outcomes are often tied to the intensity of web-based therapist guidance, which has time and cost implications that can make the population scale-up of more effective interventions difficult. A way to offset cost while maintaining the intensity of therapist guidance is to offer eHealth programs to groups rather than more standard one-on-one formats. Objective: This systematic review aims to assess experimental evidence for the effectiveness of live health professional–led group eHealth interventions on mental health, substance use, or bereavement among community-dwelling adults. Within the articles selected for our primary aim, we also seek to examine the impact of interventions that encourage physical activity compared with those that do not. Methods: Overall, 4 databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library) were searched in July 2020. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of eHealth interventions led by health professionals and delivered entirely to adult groups by videoconference, teleconference, or webchat. Eligible studies reported mental health, substance use, or bereavement as primary outcomes. The results were examined by outcome, eHealth platform, and intervention length. Postintervention data were used to calculate effect size by study. The findings were summarized using the Synthesis Without Meta-Analysis guidelines. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Tool. Results: Of the 4099 identified studies, 21 (0.51%) RCTs representing 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined mental health outcomes among 2438 participants (sample size range: 47-361 participants per study) across 7 countries. When effect sizes were pooled, live health professional–led group eHealth interventions had a medium effect on reducing anxiety compared with inactive (Cohen d=0.57) or active control (Cohen d=0.48), a medium to small effect on reducing depression compared with inactive (Cohen d=0.61) or active control (Cohen d=0.21), and mixed effects on mental distress and coping. Interventions led by videoconference, and those that provided 8-12 hours of live health professional–led group contact had more robust effects on adult mental health. Risk of bias was high in 91% (19/21) of the studies. Heterogeneity across interventions was significant, resulting in low to very low quality of evidence. No eligible RCT was found that examined substance use, bereavement, or physical activity. Conclusions: Live eHealth group interventions led by health professionals can foster moderate improvements in anxiety and moderate to small improvements in depression among community-based adults, particularly those delivered by videoconference and those providing 8-12 hours of synchronous engagement.
- ItemEffect of major life events on travel behaviours: a scoping review(MDPI, 2020) Larouche, Richard; Rodriguez, Ulises C.; Nayakarathna, Ransimala; Scott, David R.The transportation sector accounts for about a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. Previous research suggests that major life events may be “windows of opportunity” for travel behaviour change. Our scoping review examined the eﬀects of seven events (transitions to secondary school, post-secondary studies, labour market, marriage, parenthood, retirement, and relocation) on travel behaviours. Five databases were searched (MEDLINE, APA PsycINFO, Web of Science, SportDISCUS, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses) and 80 articles met inclusion criteria. Relocation was the most commonly examined event (with 51studies). Findings illustrate that moving to compact neighbourhoods (with shorter commute distance/traveltime, greater walkability/access to destinations) was associated with shifts towards sustainable travel modes (e.g., walking, cycling, and transit). Relocation might be particularly conducive to implementing scalable sustainable transportation interventions, as all six interventions with appropriate statistical power were eﬀective. Entry into the labour market was generally associated with increased car use and declines in sustainable transportation. Qualitative studies suggested that attitudes towards cycling may become negative during adolescence, while attitudes towards driving improve, highlighting a need for concerted action. Evidence for other events was less consistent. Research in developing countries remain scarce and further intervention research is needed to enhance quality of evidence.
- ItemThe impact of eHealth group interventions on the mental, behavioral, and physical health of adults: A systematic review protocol(BioMed Central, 2020) Currie, Cheryl L.; Larouche, Richard; Voss, M. Lauren; Higa, Erin K.; Spiwak, Rae; Scott, David R.; Tallow, TreenaBackground: COVID-19 has resulted in an increased demand for eHealth services globally. There is emerging evidence for the efficacy for group eHealth interventions that support population-based mental health and wellbeing, but a systematic review is lacking. The primary objective of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for eHealth group counseling and coaching programs for adults. A second objective is to assess, within studies selected for our primary objective, the impact of programs that encourage PA on outcomes compared to those that do not. Methods: Randomized controlled trials that assess the impact of eHealth group counseling or coaching programs on mental health, health behavior, or physical health activity among community-dwelling adults will be included. We will search the following electronic databases (from January 2005 onwards): MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINHAL, and the Central Register of Controlled Trials. The primary outcomes will be changes in mental health conditions (e.g., depression, anxiety, stress, quality of life), behavioral health conditions (e.g., substance use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating behavior, medication adherence), and physical health conditions (e.g., coping with cancer, menopausal symptoms, arthritis pain). Secondary outcomes will be changes in physical activity. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. A narrative synthesis without meta-analysis will be conducted. The strength of the body of evidence will be assessed using GRADE. The risk of bias in individual studies will be appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. Potential sources of gender bias in included studies will be considered at all stages of the planned review. Discussion: This review will contribute to the literature by providing evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth counseling and coaching programs delivered to adults in a group format.