Hazendonk, Paul

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    SF4·N(C2H5)3: the first conclusively characterized SF4 adduct with an organic base
    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2012) Goettel, James T.; Chaudhary, Praveen; Hazendonk, Paul; Mercier, Hélène P. A.; Gerken, Michael
    Sulfur tetrafluoride and triethylamine react at low temperatures to form a 1 : 1 adduct. The unambiguous characterization of the SF4 N(C2H5)3, which is only stable at low temperature, proves the Lewis acid property of SF4 towards organic Lewis bases. The S–N bond has a length of 2.384(2) A ̊ and is an archetypical example of a dative SIV ’N bonding modality
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    The structure of trimethyltin fluoride
    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015) Chaudhary, Praveen; Bieringer, Mario; Hazendonk, Paul; Gerken, Michael
    The solid-state structure of (CH3)3SnF was reinvestigated by X-ray diffraction techniques as well as by multi-nuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Trimethyltin fluoride crystallizes from hot ethanol in the orthorhombic space group Pnma at room temperature and changes to a low-temperature orthorhombic phase (space group: Cmcm) below −70 °C. In both modifications, trimethyltin fluoride adopts a linear chain structure with symmetric fluorine bridges, in contrast to previous reports. During its synthesis, (CH3)3SnF precipitates in another, poorly crystalline modification, as shown by powder X-ray diffraction. Solid-state MAS NMR experiments of both room-temperature phases of (CH3)3SnF (non-recrystallized and recrystallized) were carried out for the 1H, 13C, 19F, and 119Sn nuclei. The 119Sn{19F, 1H} and 19F{1H} NMR spectra offer unambiguous determination for the 19F and 119Sn shielding tensors. The 119Sn{1H} solid-state NMR spectra are in agreement with pentacoordination of Sn in this compound for the non-recrystallized and the recrystallized modifications. Based on the solid-state NMR results, the non-recrystallized modification of (CH3)3SnF also consists of linear, symmetrically fluorine-bridged chains, and differs from the recrystallized orthorhombic phase only in packing of the chains.
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    Single-core PAHs in petroleum- and coal-derived asphaltenes: size and distribution from solid-state NMR spectroscopy and optical absorption measurements
    (American Chemical Society, 2016) Majumdar, R. Dutta; Bake, K. D.; Ratna, Y.; Pomerantz, A. E.; Mullins, O. C.; Gerken, Michael; Hazendonk, Paul
    Using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of two different asphaltenes, one derived from petroleum and the other from coal liquids, it was shown that the asphaltene molecular architecture consists of a spectrum of sizes, ranging from smaller polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; <5 condensed rings) to much larger ones (>9 condensed rings), but their distribution varies between the two. It is shown that smaller PAHs are likely more abundant in the coal-derived asphaltenes, while the largest PAH cores of the two different asphaltenes are similar in size. These observations are reinforced by optical absorption. The coal-derived asphaltenes were found to contain a small fraction of archipelago-type structures, where a small PAH is tethered to the larger PAH core via an aryl linkage, which are less evident, and likely less abundant, in the petroleum asphaltenes. An important difference between the two asphaltenes lies in their alkyl fraction, with the petroleum asphaltenes possessing significantly longer and more mobile alkyl side chains, on average ∼7 carbons long, as opposed to an average chain length of ∼3–4 in the coal asphaltenes. The petroleum asphaltenes also possess a larger fraction of alicyclics. The longer length increases the propensity of the petroleum asphaltene alkyl side chains to intercalate between the aromatic rings of adjacent asphaltene aggregates, which is not observed in coal-derived asphaltenes. This work demonstrates the utility of combining cross-polarization dynamics and directly polarized 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy in studying asphaltenes, while adding to the body of evidence supporting the single-core model of asphaltenes, which appears to be the dominant structural motif for this fraction of petroleum.
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    Stabilisation of [WF5]+ and WF5 by pyridine: facile access to [WF5(NC5H5)3]+ and WF5(NC5H5)2
    (Wiley, 2020) Turnbull, Douglas; Hazendonk, Paul; Wetmore, Stacey D.
    The enhanced reactivity of [WF5]+ over WF6 has been exploited to access a neutral derivative of elusive WF5. The reaction of WF6(NC5H5)2 with [(CH3)3Si(NC5H5)][O3SCF3] in CH2Cl2 results in quantitative formation of trigonal-dodecahedral [WF5(NC5H5)3]+, which has been characterised as its [O3SCF3]− salt by Raman spectroscopy in the solid state and variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy in solution. The salt is susceptible to slow decomposition in solution at ambient temperature via dissociation of a pyridyl ligand, and the resultant [WF5(NC5H5)2]+ is reduced to WF5(NC5H5)2 in the presence of excess C5H5N, as determined by 19F NMR spectroscopy. Pentagonal-bipyramidal WF5(NC5H5)2 was isolated and characterised by X-ray crystallography and Raman spectroscopy in the solid state, representing the first unambiguously characterised WF5 adduct, as well as the first heptacoordinate adduct of a transition-metal pentafluoride. DFT-B3LYP methods have been used to investigate the reduction of [WF5(NC5H5)2]+ to WF5(NC5H5)2, supporting a two-electron reduction of WVI to WIV by nucleophilic attack and diprotonation of a pyridyl ligand in the presence of free C5H5N, followed by comproportionation to WV.
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    Reactions of molybdenum and tungsten oxide tetrafluoride with sulfur(IV) Lewis bases: structure and bonding in [WOF4]4, MOF4(OSO), and [SF3][M2O2F9] (M = Mo, W)
    (American Chemical Society, 2020) Turnbull, Douglas; Chaudhary, Praveen; Leenstra, Dakota; Hazendonk, Paul; Wetmore, Stacey D.
    The structure of [WOF4]4 has been reinvestigated by low-temperature X-ray crystallography and DFT (MN15/def2- SVPD) studies. Whereas the W4F4 ring of the tetramer is planar and disordered in the solid state, the optimized gas-phase geometry prefers a disphenoidally puckered W4F4 ring and demonstrates asymmetric fluorine bridging. Dissolution of MOF4 (M = Mo, W) in SO2 and SF4 results in the formation of MOF4(OSO) and [SF3][M2O2F9], respectively. Both SO2 adducts and [SF3]- [Mo2O2F9] have been characterized by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of [SF3][Mo2O2F9] reveals dimerization of the ion pair that results in a rare heptacoordinate sulfur center. Optimization of the {[SF3][M2O2F9]}2 dimers in the gas phase, however, results in the elongation of one contact such that the sulfur centers are effectively hexacoordinate. Meanwhile, the crystal structure of [SF3][W2O2F9]·HF instead demonstrates hexacoordinate sulfur centers and a highly unusual coordination to [SF3]+ from [W2O2F9]−through an oxido ligand. While [SF3][W2O2F9] does not decompose at ambient temperature, MOF4(OSO) and [SF3][Mo2O2F9] are unstable toward evolution of SO2 or SF4. Computational studies reveal that the monomerization of [WOF4]4 in the gas phase at 25 °C is thermodynamically unfavorable using SO2, but favorable using SF4, consistent with the relative thermal stabilities of WOF4(OSO) and [SF3][W2O2F9].