Comparison of Blackfoot and Hopi games and their contemporary application : a review of the literature

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Sommerfeldt, Daniel M.
University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science
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Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Arts and Science, 2005
This thesis compares the ancient games played by the Blackfoot confederacy and the Hopi Pueblos and examines their contemporary application. A literature review resulted in the aggregation of 34 Blackfoot games and 34 Hopi games. The 68 games were clustered into games of dexterity, guessing games, amusement, and games in legend. Twenty games were selected to be compared in the areas of equipment, purpose of play, how the game was played, number of participants, the gender allowed to play, the age of participants, season of play, the length of time to play the game, scoring, and how a winner was declared. This study also examines, through the literature review, personal communication and Internet information that the ancient games of the Blackfoot and the Hopi have contemporary application, which may be achieved with slight variations. Additional information on the composition, origins, linguistic families, possible tribal associations, and some European encounters of the Blackfoot and the Hopi was provided. This information is included as context to aid in the exclusion of games that may have been adopted from the Europeans. The thesis concludes there is an urgent need to identify the ancient games of Blackfoot and Hopi before knowledgeable elders are gone. Also it is recommended that this not be the end of the study of the games, but that it only be a beginning on which to build.
xiii, 116 leaves ; 29 cm.
Indigenous peoples -- Games -- Comparative studies , Indigenous peoples -- Social life and customs , Siksika -- Games -- Comparative studies , Hopi -- Games -- Comparative studies , Dissertations, Academic