Bullying, physical aggressivity, gender atypicality, and sexual orientation in males
University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science
Lethbridge, Alta : University of Lethbridge, Dept. of Psychology
Bullying is recognized, both in the popular media and the academic literature, as a highly important social issue requiring understanding in order to redress its harms. Research has established that same-sex attracted males in the West are at heightened risk for victimization due to bullying. Although not entirely understood, the connection between male sexual orientation and heightened victimization due to bullying has been linked to homophobia, same-sex attracted males’ deviation from gender norms, as well as their lower levels of physical aggression. The studies contained in this thesis examine the connections between physical aggression, childhood gender-atypicality, and sexual orientation in the Pacific Island nation of Samoa, a culture tolerant of same-sex attracted males (known locally as fa’afafine, a third gender). Despite being highly gender-atypical in childhood, fa’afafine did not report greater victimization due to bullying in childhood than opposite-sex attracted men. This finding is unprecedented compared to Western data.
Bullying , Physical Aggression , Victimization , Sexual Orientation , Male Androphilia , Samoa