Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: a spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis

dc.contributor.authorDietze, Michael C.
dc.contributor.authorVargas, Rodrigo
dc.contributor.authorRichardson, Andrew D.
dc.contributor.authorStoy, Paul C.
dc.contributor.authorBarr, Alan G.
dc.contributor.authorAnderson, Ryan S.
dc.contributor.authorArain, M. Altaf
dc.contributor.authorBaker, Ian T.
dc.contributor.authorBlack, T. Andrew
dc.contributor.authorChen, Jing M.
dc.contributor.authorPhilippe, Ciais
dc.contributor.authorFlanagan, Larry B.
dc.contributor.authorGough, Christopher M.
dc.contributor.authorGrant, Robert F.
dc.contributor.authorHollinger, David Y.
dc.contributor.authorIzaurralde, R. Cesar
dc.contributor.authorKucharik, Christopher J.
dc.contributor.authorLafleur, Peter M.
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Shugang
dc.contributor.authorLokupitiya, Erandathie
dc.contributor.authorLuo, Yiqi
dc.contributor.authorMunger, J. William
dc.contributor.authorPeng, Changhui
dc.contributor.authorPoulter, Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorPrice, David T.
dc.contributor.authorRicciuto, Daniel M.
dc.contributor.authorRiley, William J.
dc.contributor.authorSahoo, Alok Kumar
dc.contributor.authorSchaefer, Kevin
dc.contributor.authorSuyker, Andrew E.
dc.contributor.authorTian, Hanqin
dc.contributor.authorTonitto, Christina
dc.contributor.authorVerbeeck, Hans
dc.contributor.authorVerma, Shashi B.
dc.contributor.authorWang, Weifeng
dc.contributor.authorWeng, Ensheng
dc.descriptionSherpa Romeo green journal. Permission to archive final published version.en_US
dc.description.abstractEcosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Despite the fact that ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales, most assessments of model performance do not discriminate different time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the identification of the dominant time scales contributing to model performance in the frequency domain. In this study we used wavelet analyses to synthesize the performance of 21 ecosystem models at 9 eddy covariance towers as part of the North American Carbon Program’s site-level intercomparison. This study expands upon previous single-site and single-model analyses to determine what patterns of model error are consistent across a diverse range of models and sites. To assess the significance of model error at different time scales, a novel Monte Carlo approach was developed to incorporate flux observation error. Failing to account for observation error leads to a misidentification of the time scales that dominate model error. These analyses show that model error (1) is largest at the annual and 20–120 day scales, (2) has a clear peak at the diurnal scale, and (3) shows large variability among models in the 2–20 day scales. Errors at the annual scale were consistent across time, diurnal errors were predominantly during the growing season, and intermediate-scale errors were largely event driven. Breaking spectra into discrete temporal bands revealed a significant model-by-band effect but also a non significant model-by-site effect, which together suggest that individual models show consistency in their error patterns. Differences among models were related to model time step, soil hydrology, and the representation of photosynthesis and phenology but not the soil carbon or nitrogen cycles. These factors had the greatest impact on diurnal errors, were less important at annual scales, and had the least impact at intermediate time scales.en_US
dc.identifier.citationDietze, M. C., Vargas, R., Richardson, A. D., Stoy, P. C., Barr, A. G., Anderson, R. S.,...Weng, E. (2011). Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research (Biogeosciences), 116, G04029. doi:10.1029/2011JG001661en_US
dc.publisherAmerican Geophysical Unionen_US
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Biological Sciencesen_US
dc.publisher.facultyArts and Scienceen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Illinoise at Urbana-Champaignen_US
dc.publisher.institutionCentro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenadaen_US
dc.publisher.institutionHarvard Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionMontana State Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionAtmospheric Science and Technology Directorateen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Montanaen_US
dc.publisher.institutionMcMaster Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionColorado State Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of British Columbiaen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Torontoen_US
dc.publisher.institutionCentre d'Etudes Orme des Merisiersen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Lethbridgeen_US
dc.publisher.institutionVirginia Commonwealth Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Albertaen_US
dc.publisher.institutionU.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Serviceen_US
dc.publisher.institutionPacific Northwest National Laboratoryen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Marylanden_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Wisconsin-Madisonen_US
dc.publisher.institutionTrent Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionEarth Resources Observation and Science Centeren_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Oklahomaen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Quebec at Montrealen_US
dc.publisher.institutionSwiss Federal Research Instituteen_US
dc.publisher.institutionLaboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environmenten_US
dc.publisher.institutionCanadian Forest Serviceen_US
dc.publisher.institutionOak Ridge National Laboratoryen_US
dc.publisher.institutionLawrence Berkeley National Laboratoryen_US
dc.publisher.institutionPrinceton Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Colorado at Boulderen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Nebraska-Lincolnen_US
dc.publisher.institutionAuburn Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionCornell Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionGhent Universityen_US
dc.subjectCarbon cycleen_US
dc.subjectEcosystem modelsen_US
dc.subjectEddy covarianceen_US
dc.subjectModel comparisonen_US
dc.subjectUncertainty analysisen_US
dc.subjectWavelet decompositionen_US
dc.subjectNorth American Carbon Program
dc.subjectTime scales
dc.subjectWavelet analyses
dc.subject.lcshCarbon cycle (Biogeochemistry)
dc.titleCharacterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: a spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesisen_US
Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Thumbnail Image
8.71 MB
Adobe Portable Document Format
License bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Thumbnail Image
1.75 KB
Item-specific license agreed upon to submission