Acquisition of object-robbing and object/food-bartering behaviours: a culturally maintained token economy in free-ranging long-tailed macaques

dc.contributor.authorLeca, Jean-Baptiste
dc.contributor.authorGunst, Noëlle
dc.contributor.authorGardiner, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorWandia, I. Nengah
dc.date.accessioned2022-06-30T20:31:25Z
dc.date.available2022-06-30T20:31:25Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.descriptionOpen access article. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) appliesen_US
dc.description.abstractThe token exchange paradigm shows that monkeys and great apes are able to use objects as symbolic tools to request specific food rewards. Such studies provide insights into the cognitive underpinnings of economic behaviour in non-human primates. However, the ecological validity of these laboratory-based experimental situations tends to be limited. Our field research aims to address the need for a more ecologically valid primate model of trading systems in humans. Around the Uluwatu Temple in Bali, Indonesia, a large free-ranging population of long-tailed macaques spontaneously and routinely engage in token-mediated bartering interactions with humans. These interactions occur in two phases: after stealing inedible and more or less valuable objects from humans, the macaques appear to use them as tokens, by returning them to humans in exchange for food. Our field observational and experimental data showed (i) age differences in robbing/bartering success, indicative of experiential learning, and (ii) clear behavioural associations between value-based token possession and quantity or quality of food rewards rejected and accepted by subadult and adult monkeys, suggestive of robbing/bartering payoff maximization and economic decision-making. This population-specific, prevalent, cross-generational, learned and socially influenced practice may be the first example of a culturally maintained token economy in free-ranging animals.en_US
dc.description.peer-reviewYesen_US
dc.identifier.citationLeca, J.-B., Gunst, N., Gardiner, M., & Wandia, I. N. (2021). Acquisition of object-robbing and object/food-bartering behaviours: A culturally maintained token economy in free-ranging long-tailed macaques. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 376(1819). https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0677,en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10133/6255
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherThe Royal Society Publishingen_US
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Psychologyen_US
dc.publisher.facultyArts and Scienceen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Lethbridgeen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUdayana Universityen_US
dc.publisher.urlhttps://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0677en_US
dc.subjectToken exchangeen_US
dc.subjectBarteringen_US
dc.subjectEconomic behaviouren_US
dc.subjectSymbolic toolen_US
dc.subjectMaterial cultureen_US
dc.subjectEcological validityen_US
dc.subjectFood rewards
dc.subjectObject-robbing
dc.subjectObject-bartering
dc.subjectFood-bartering
dc.subjectLong-tailed macaques
dc.subject.lcshKra--Behavior
dc.subject.lcshMacaques--Behavior
dc.subject.lcshMacaques--Food
dc.titleAcquisition of object-robbing and object/food-bartering behaviours: a culturally maintained token economy in free-ranging long-tailed macaquesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
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