Epigenetic modifications during angiosperm gametogenesis
Angiosperms do not contain a distinct germline, but rather develop gametes from game-tophyte initials that undergo cell division.These gametes contain cells that give rise to an endosperm and the embryo. DNA methylation is decreased in the vegetative nucleus(VN) and central cell nuclei (CCN) resulting in expression of transposable elements (TEs). It is thought that the siRNAs produced in response to TE expression are able to travel to the sperm cells and egg cells (EC) from VN and CCN, respectively, in order to enforce silencing there. Demethylation during gametogenesis helps ensure that even newly integrated TEs are expressed and therefore silenced by the resulting siRNA production. A final form of epi-genetic control is modification of histones, which includes accumulation of the H3 variant HTR10 in mature sperm that is then completely replaced following fertilization.In females, the histone isoforms present in the EC and CCN differ, potentially helping to differentiate the two components during gametogenesis.
Sherpa Romeo green journal: open access
Epigenetic modifications , Genomic imprinting , Transposon reactivation , Plant gametogenesis , DNA methylation , Histone modifications
Migicovsky, Z., & Kovalchuk, I. (2012). Epigenetic modifications during angiosperm gametogenesis. Frontiers in Plant Science, 3(20). doi:10.3389/fpls.2012.00020