The influence of X-factor (trunk rotation) and experience on the quality of the badminton forehand smash

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Zhang, Zhao
Li, Shiming
Wan, Bingjun
Visentin, Peter
Jiang, Qinxian
Dyck, Mary
Li, Hua
Shan, Gongbing
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De Gruyter Open
No existing studies of badminton technique have used full-body biomechanical modeling based on three dimensional (3D) motion capture to quantify the kinematics of the sport. The purposes of the current study were to: 1) quantitatively describe kinematic characteristics of the forehand smash using a 15-segment, full-body biomechanical model, 2) examine and compare kinematic differences between novice and skilled players with a focus on trunk rotation (the X-factor), and 3) through this comparison, identify principal parameters that contributed to the quality of the skill. Together, these findings have the potential to assist coaches and players in the teaching and learning of the forehand smash. Twenty-four participants were divided into two groups (novice, n = 10 and skilled, n = 14). A 10-camera VICON MX40 motion capture system (200 frames/s) was used to quantify full-body kinematics, racket movement and the flight of the shuttlecock. Results confirmed that skilled players utilized more trunk rotation than novices. In two ways, trunk rotation (the X-factor) was shown to be vital for maximizing the release speed of the shuttlecock – an important measure of the quality of the forehand smash. First, more trunk rotation invoked greater lengthening in the pectoralis major (PM) during the preparation phase of the stroke which helped generate an explosive muscle contraction. Second, larger range of motion (ROM) induced by trunk rotation facilitated a whip-like (proximal to distal) control sequence among the body segments responsible for increasing racket speed. These results suggest that training intended to increase the efficacy of this skill needs to focus on how the X-factor is incorporated into the kinematic chain of the arm and the racket.
Sherpa Romeo green journal. Open access article. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License 9CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) applies
3D motion capture , Full-body modeling , Kinematics , Whip-like movement , Badminton technique , Forehand smash , Trunk rotation
Zhang, Z., Li, S., Wan, B., Visentin, P, Jiang, Q., Dyck, M., ... Shan, G. (2016). The influence of X-factor (trunk rotation) and experience on the quality of the badminton forehand smash. Journal of Human Kinetics, 53(1), 9-22. DOI: 10.1515/hukin-2016-0006