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- ItemChange and grassroots movement: re-conceptualizing women's hockey governance in Canada(Interscience, 2007) Adams, Carly; Stevens, JulieIn Canada, female hockey governance structures vary as different regions of the country may better suit integrated or partially-integrated governance approaches based upon their unique local histories and individual dynamics. Indeed, the Ontario Women’s Hockey Association (OWHA) is the only female hockey provincial association in Canada that endorses and endeavours to maintain a separatist philosophy. However, women’s hockey governance in Canada as a whole has not progressed in a manner where the authority of female hockey participants and leaders has increased. This paper initiates dialogue about women’s sport governance by utilising women’s hockey in Canada and specifically a case study of the OWHA, as a context in which to develop a new perspective and renew efforts to place women’s sport governance on the agenda. In order to develop a sport and governance dialogue for women’s hockey specifically and women’s sport more broadly, we present a theoretical discussion that integrates critical feminist and grassroots movement perspectives.
- ItemSupervised places to play: social reform, citizenship, and femininity at municipal playgrounds in London, Ontario, 1900-1942(Ontario Historical Society, 2011) Adams, CarlyIn early 20th century Canada, middle-class social reformers campaigned for urban parks and supervised playgrounds to provide children with appropriate places for leisure activities. Drawing on adult memories of participating in playgrounds in London, Ontario, this study explores the issues and complexities of establishing the playground program in London and, more specifically, the opportunities provided for girls and young women to learn and play sport. I consider the implications of social and moral reform initiatives on leisure spaces, and the impact of the delivery of social welfare at the municipal level on the lives of female participants.
- Item'Jumping like a girl': Discursive silences, exclusionary practices, and the controversy over women's ski jumping(Taylor and Francis, 2010) Laurendeau, Jason; Adams, CarlyThis paper considers the recent International Olympic Committee (IOC) decision to deny women the opportunity to compete in ski jumping at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on a feminist Foucauldian framework, we suggest that the Olympics is a discourse that constructs excellence and fairness as “within the true,” with the IOC protesting that this recent decision is not about gender, but about the upholding of Olympic ideals. We interrogate three conspicuous absences in this discourse, each of which trouble the IOC’s claim that this decision is not evidence of gender discrimination. In particular, we contextualize this decision within the risk discourses upon which the IOC has historically drawn on denying women’s participation in particular Olympic events, arguing that the discursive silence around the issue of risk points to “old wine in new bottles” as the IOC dresses up the same paternalistic practices in new garb. We conclude with a consideration of these discursive structures as more than simply oppressive of women. Instead, they may also be understood as indicative of the ‘problem’ posed by women, especially those who threaten the gender binary that pervades many sporting structures. Finally, these structures signal opportunities for resistance and subversion as women act to shed light on the discursive silences upon which structures of domination rest.
- ItemSoftball and the female community: Pauline Perron, pro ball player, Outsider, 1926-1951(LA84 Foundation, 2006) Adams, CarlyIn twentieth-century Canadian society, sport, leisure, and physical activities have been significant social venues where men and women learn to relate to one another, struggle for authority and power, and celebrate lifestyle and community values. However, the experiences of men and women in sport have been appreciably different, in terms of access to rewards, opportunities to participate, and the cultural norms associated with physical activity.In this sense, sport has reproduced a gender order through which men and women learn, appreciate, celebrate, and denigrate specific masculinities and femininities. The story of Pauline Perron and her personal reminiscences of growing up and playing sport in Quebec and later her recruitment by the London Supremes fastball club in Ontario offer a historically specific case study of one woman’s journeys between sport, work, and social life. When Perron joined the organized women’s softball community in the early 1940s, she found herself amidst an ongoing controversy over amateur values during the era of professional softball opportunities for women.