Biostratigraphic evidence relating to the age-old question of Hannibal's invasion of Italy, II: chemical biomarkers and microbial signatures

dc.contributor.authorMahaney, William C.
dc.contributor.authorAllen, Christopher C. R.
dc.contributor.authorPentlavalli, Prasanna
dc.contributor.authorKulakova, Anna
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Jonathan M.
dc.contributor.authorDirszowsky, Randy W.
dc.contributor.authorWest, Allen
dc.contributor.authorKelleher, Brian
dc.contributor.authorJordan, Sean
dc.contributor.authorPulleyblank, C.
dc.contributor.authorO'Reilly, Shane
dc.contributor.authorMurphy, B. T.
dc.contributor.authorLasberg, Katrin
dc.contributor.authorSomelar, Peeter
dc.contributor.authorGarneau, Michelle
dc.contributor.authorFinkelstein, S. A.
dc.contributor.authorSobol, M. K.
dc.contributor.authorKalm, Volli
dc.contributor.authorCosta, Pedro J. M.
dc.contributor.authorHancock, Ronald G. V.
dc.contributor.authorHart, Kris M.
dc.contributor.authorTricart, Pierre
dc.contributor.authorBarendregt, René W.
dc.contributor.authorBunch, Ted E.
dc.contributor.authorMilner, Michael W.
dc.descriptionOpen access article. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) appliesen_US
dc.description.abstractAs discussed in Part I, a large accumulation of mammalian faeces at the mire site in the upper Guil Valley near Mt. Viso, dated to 2168 cal 14C yr., provides the first evidence of the passage of substantial but indeterminate numbers of mammals within the time frame of the Punic invasion of Italia. Specialized organic biomarkers bound up in a highly convoluted and bioturbated bed constitute an unusual anomaly in a histosol comprised of fibric and hemist horizons that are usually expected to display horizontal bedding. The presence of deoxycholic acid and ethylcoprostanol derived from faecal matter, coupled with high relative numbers of Clostridia 16S rRNA genes, suggests a substantial accumulation of mammalian faeces at the site over 2000 years ago. The results reported here constitute the first chemical and biological evidence of the passage of large numbers of mammals, possibly indicating the route of the Hannibalic army at this time. Combined with the geological analysis reported in Part I, these data provide a background supporting the need for further historical archaeological exploration in this area.en_US
dc.identifier.citationMahaney, W. C., Allen, C. C. R., Pentlavalli, P., Kulakova, A., Young, J. M., Dirszowsky, R. W., West, A., Kelleher, B., Jordan, S., Pulleyblank, C., O'Reilly, S., Murphy, B. T., Lasberg, K., Somelar, P., Garneau, M., Finkelstein, S. A., Sobol, M. K., Kalm, V., Costa, P. J. M.,...Milner, M. W. (2017). Biostratigraphic evidence relating to the age-old question of Hannibal's invasion of Italy, II: Chemical biomarkers and microbial signatures. Archaeometry, 59(1), 179-190.
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Geographyen_US
dc.publisher.facultyArts and Scienceen_US
dc.publisher.institutionYork Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionQueens University Belfasten_US
dc.publisher.institutionLaurentian Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionGeoScience Consultingen_US
dc.publisher.institutionDublin City Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Tartuen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversité du Québec et Montréalen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Torontoen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversidade de Lisboaen_US
dc.publisher.institutionMcMaster Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionQueen Mary University of Londonen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversité Joseph Fourieren_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Lethbridgeen_US
dc.publisher.institutionNorthern Arizona Universityen_US
dc.publisher.institutionMWM Consultingen_US
dc.subjectHannibalic Waren_US
dc.subjectOrganic geochemical analysisen_US
dc.subjectMicrobiological evidenceen_US
dc.subjectFaecal biomarkersen_US
dc.subjectHistorical archaeological site identificationen_US
dc.subjectArchaeological scienceen_US
dc.subjectAlluvial floodplain mire
dc.subjectMAD bed
dc.subjectMass animal deposit
dc.subject.lcshArchaeology and history
dc.subject.lcshPunic War, 2nd, 218-201 B.C.--Environmental aspects
dc.subject.lcshPunic War, 2nd, 218-201 B.C.--Campaigns--Italy
dc.subject.lcshAnalytical geochemistry
dc.titleBiostratigraphic evidence relating to the age-old question of Hannibal's invasion of Italy, II: chemical biomarkers and microbial signaturesen_US
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