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- ItemPreface: the environmental mapping and analysis program (EnMAP) mission: preparing for its scientific exploitation(MDPI, 2016) Foerster, Saskia; Carrère, Véronique; Rast, Michael; Staenz, KarlThe imaging spectroscopy mission EnMAP aims to assess the state and evolution of terrestrialandaquaticecosystems,examinethemultifacetedimpactsofhumanactivities,andsupport a sustainable use of natural resources. Once in operation (scheduled to launch in 2019), EnMAP will provide high-quality observations in the visible to near-infrared and shortwave-infrared spectral range. The scientiﬁc preparation of the mission comprises an extensive science program. This special issue presents a collection of research articles, demonstrating the potential of EnMAP for various applications along with overview articles on the mission and software tools developed within its scientiﬁc preparation.
- ItemSpatial variability mapping of crop residue using hyperion (EO-1) hyperspectral data(MDPI AG, 2015) Bannari, Abderrazak; Staenz, Karl; Champagne, Catherine; Khurshi, K. ShahidSoil management practices that maintain crop residue cover and reduce tillage improve soil structure, increase organic matter content in the soil, positively influence water infiltration, evaporation and soil temperature, and play an important role in fixing CO2 in the soil. Consequently, good residue management practices on agricultural land have many positive impacts on soil quality, crop production quality and decrease the rate of soil erosion. Several studies have been undertaken to develop and test methods to derive information on crop residue cover and soil tillage using empirical and semi-empirical methods in combination with remote sensing data. However, these methods are generally not sufficiently rigorous and accurate for characterizing the spatial variability of crop residue cover in agricultural fields. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential of hyperspectral Hyperion (Earth Observing-1, EO-1) data and constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (CLSMA) for percent crop residue cover estimation and mapping. Hyperion data were acquired together with ground-reference measurements for validation purposes at the beginning of the agricultural season (prior to spring crop planting) in Saskatchewan (Canada). At this time, only bare soil and crop residue were present with no crop cover development. In order to extract the crop residue fraction, the images were preprocessed, and then unmixed considering the entire spectral range (427 nm–2355 nm) and the pure spectra (endmember). The results showed that the correlation between ground-reference measurements and extracted fractions from the Hyperion data using CLMSA showed that the model was overall a very good predictor for crop residue percent cover (index of agreement (D) of 0.94, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.73 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 8.7%) and soil percent cover (D of 0.91, R2 of 0.68 and RMSE of 10.3%). This performance of Hyperion is mainly due to the spectral band characteristics, especially the availability of contiguous narrow bands in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region, which is sensitive to the residue (lignin and cellulose absorption features).