# Faculty Research & Publications

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- ItemAdiabatic quantum computation and Deutsch's algorithm(American Physical Society, 2002) Das, Saurya; Kobes, Randy; Kunstatter, GaborWe show that by a suitable choice of a time-dependent Hamiltonian, Deutsch’s algorithm can be implemented by an adiabatic quantum computer. We extend our analysis to the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and estimate the required running time for both global and local adiabatic evolutions.
- ItemAspects of Planckian scattering beyond the eikonal(Indian Academy of Sciences, 1998) Das, Saurya; Majumdar, ParthasarathiWe discuss an approach to compute two-particle scattering amplitudes for spinless light particles colliding at Planckian centre-of-mass energies, with increasing momentum transfer away from the eikonal limit. The leading corrections to the eikonal amplitude, in our 'external metric' approach, are shown to be vanishingly small in the limit of the source particle mass going to zero. For massless charged particles, the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions decouple in the eikonal limit, hut mix non-trivially for the leading order corrections.
- ItemBlack hole emission rates and the AdS/CFT correspondence(SISSA, 1999) Das, Saurya; Dasgupta, ArundhatiWe study the emission rates of scalar, spinor and vector particles from a 5 dimensional black hole for arbitrary partial waves. The solution is lifted to 6 dimensions, and the near horizon BTZ S3 geometry of the black hole solution is probed to determine the greybody factors. We show that the exact decay rates can be reproduced from a (1 + 1)-dimensional conformal eld theory which lies on the boundary of the near horizon geometry. The AdS/CFT correspondence is used to determine the dimension of the CFT operators corresponding to the bulk elds. These operators couple to plane waves incident on the CFT from in nity to produce emission in the bulk.
- ItemBlack hole thermodynamics: entropy, information and beyond(2015-12-16) Das, SauryaWe review some recent advances in black hole thermodynamics, including statistical mechanical origins of black hole entropy and its leading order corrections, from the viewpoints of various quantum gravity theories. We then examine the information loss problem and some possible approaches to its resolution. Finally, we study some proposed experiments which may be able to provide experimental signatures of black holes.
- ItemCalibration of Herschel SPIRE FTS observations at different spectral resolutions(Oxford University Press, 2017) Marchili, N.; Hopwood, R.; Fulton, T.; Polehampton, E. T.; Valtchanov, I.; Zaretski, J.; Naylor, David A.; Griffin, M. J.; Imhof, P.; Lim, T.; Lu, N.; Makiwa, G.; Pearson, C.; Spencer, L.The SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer on-board the Herschel Space Observatory had two standard spectral resolution modes for science observations: high resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR), which could also be performed in sequence (H+LR). A comparison of the HR and LR resolution spectra taken in this sequential mode revealed a systematic discrepancy in the continuum level. Analysing the data at different stages during standard pipeline processing demonstrates that the telescope and instrument emission affect HR and H+LR observations in a systematically different way. The origin of this difference is found to lie in the variation of both the telescope and instrument response functions, while it is triggered by fast variation of the instrument temperatures. As it is not possible to trace the evolution of the response functions using housekeeping data from the instrument subsystems, the calibration cannot be corrected analytically. Therefore, an empirical correction for LR spectra has been developed, which removes the systematic noise introduced by the variation of the response functions.
- ItemCalibration of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer(Oxford University Press, 2014) Swinyard, B. M.; Polehampton, E. T.; Hopwood, R.; Valtchanov, I.; Lu, N.; Fulton, T.; Benielli, D.; Imhof, P.; Marchili, N.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Bendo, G. J.; Ferlet, M.; Griffin, M. J.; Lim, T. L.; Makiwa, G.; Naylor, David A.; Orton, G. S.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Schulz, B.; Sidher, S. D.; Spencer, L. D.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wu, R.The Herschel Spectral and Photometric REceiver (SPIRE) instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of∼450–1550GHz. In this paper, we brieﬂy review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a spatially extended source and uses the Herschel telescopeasprimarycalibrator.Conversionfromextendedtopoint-sourcecalibrationiscarried out using observations of the planet Uranus. The model of the telescope emission is shown to beaccuratetowithin6percent andrepeatable tobetterthan0.06percent and,bycomparison with models of Mars and Neptune, the Uranus model is shown to be accurate to within 3 per cent. Multiple observations of a number of point-like sources show that the repeatability of the calibration is better than 1 per cent, if the effects of the satellite absolute pointing error (APE) are corrected. The satellite APE leads to a decrement in the derived ﬂux, which can be up to∼10 per cent (1 σ) at the high-frequency end of the SPIRE range in the ﬁrst part of the mission, and∼4 per cent after Herschel operational day 1011. The lower frequency range of the SPIRE band is unaffected by this pointing error due to the larger beam size. Overall, for well-pointed, point-like sources, the absolute ﬂux calibration is better than 6 per cent, and for extended sources where mapping is required it is better than 7 per cent.
- ItemCan MOND type hypotheses be tested in a free fall laboratory environment?(2015-12-15) Das, Saurya; Patitsas, SteveThe extremely small accelerations of objects required for the the onset of modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND, makes testing the hypothesis in conventional terrestrial laboratories virtually impossible. This is due to the large background acceleration of Earth, which is transmitted to the acceleration of test objects within an apparatus. We show however, that it may be possible to test MOND-type hypotheses with experiments using a conventional apparatus capable of tracking very small accelerations of its components, but performed in locally inertial frames such as artifi- cial satellites and other freely falling laboratories. For example, experiments involving an optical interferometer or a torsion balance in these laboratories would show nonlinear dynamics, and dis- placement amplitudes larger than expected. These experiments may also be able to test potential violations of the strong equivalence principle by MOND and to distinguish between its two possible interpretations (modified inertia and modified gravity).
- ItemCharged black holes in generalized dilaton-axion gravity(2015-12-16) Sur, Sourav; Das, Saurya; SenGupta, SoumitraWe study generic Einstein-Maxwell-Kalb-Ramond-dilaton actions, and derive conditions under which they give rise to static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions. We obtain new asymptotically flat and non-flat black hole solutions which are in general electrically and magnetically charged. They have positive definite and finite quasi-local masses. Existing non-rotating black hole solutions (including those appearing in low energy string theory) are recovered in special limits.
- ItemConserved quantities in Kerr-anti-de Sitter spacetimes in various dimensions(SISSA, 2000) Das, Saurya; Mann, Robert B.We compute the conserved charges for Kerr anti-de Sitter spacetimes in various dimensions using the conformal and the counterterm prescriptions. We show that the conserved charge corresponding to the global timelike killing vector computed by the two methods di er by a constant dependent on the rotation parameter and cosmological constant in odd spacetime dimensions, whereas the charge corresponding to the rotational killing vector is the same in either approach. We comment on possible implications of our results to the AdS/CFT correspondence.
- ItemCorrecting the extended-source calibration for the Herschel SPIRE Fourier-transform spectrometer(Oxford University Press, 2017) Valtchanov, I.; Hopwood, R.; Bendo, G.; Benson, Christopher S.; Conversi, L.; Fulton, T.; Griffin, M. J.; Joubaud, T.; Lim, T.; Lu, N.; Marchili, N.; Makiwa, G.; Meyer, R. A.; Naylor, David A.; North, C.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C.; Polehampton, E. T.; Scott, J.; Schulz, B.; Spencer, L. D.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wu, R.We describe an update to the Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) calibration for extended sources, which incorporates a correction for the frequency-dependent far-ﬁeld feedhorn efﬁciency, ηff. This signiﬁcant correction affects all FTS extended-source calibrated spectra in sparse or mapping mode, regardless of the spectral resolution. Line ﬂuxes and continuum levels are underestimated by factors of 1.3–2 in the spectrometer long wavelength band (447–1018 GHz; 671–294 µm) and 1.4–1.5 in the spectrometer short wavelength band (944–1568 GHz; 318–191 µm). The correctionwasimplementedintheFTSpipelineversion14.1andhasalsobeendescribedinthe SPIRE Handbook since 2017 February. Studies based on extended-source calibrated spectra produced prior to this pipeline version should be critically reconsidered using the current products available in the Herschel Science Archive. Once the extended-source calibrated spectra are corrected for ηff, the synthetic photometry and the broad-band intensities from SPIRE photometer maps agree within 2–4percent – similar levels to the comparison of point-source calibrated spectra and photometry from point-source calibrated maps. The two calibration schemes for the FTS are now self-consistent: the conversion between the corrected extended-source and point-source calibrated spectra can be achieved with the beam solid angle and a gain correction that accounts for the diffraction loss.
- ItemCosmic coincidence or graviton mass?(2015-12-23) Das, SauryaUsing the quantum corrected Friedmann equation, obtained from the quantum Raychudhuri equation, and assuming a small mass of the graviton (but consistent with observations and theory), we propose a resolution of the smallness prroblem (why is observed vacuum energy so small?) and the coincidence problem (why does it constitute most of the universe, about 70%, in the current epoch?).
- ItemCosmological constant, brane tension and large hierarchy in a generalized Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario(2015-12-22) Das, Saurya; Maity, Debaprasad; SenGupta, SoumitraWe consider a generalized Randall Sundrum (RS) brane world scenario with a cosmological constant induced on the visible brane. We show that for < 0, resolution of the hierarchy problem requires an upper bound on the magnitude of . The corresponding tension on the visible brane can be positive or negative. On the other hand, there is no such bound for > 0. However, in this case, the resolution of the hierarchy problem along with the tuning of the value of the cosmological constant to its observed value closed to +10−124 (in Planck units) naturally lead to the tuning of the modulus to a small value of inverse Planck length as estimated in the original RS scenario.
- ItemCosmology from quantum potential(2016-01-20) Ali, Ahmed Farag; Das, SauryaIt was shown recently that replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories gives rise to a quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). Here we derive the second order Friedmann equations from the QRE, and show that this also contains a couple of quantum correction terms, the first of which can be interpreted as cosmological constant (and gives a correct estimate of its observed value), or as dark matter, while the second as a radiation term in the early universe, which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and predicts an infinite age of our universe.
- ItemDas and Vagenas reply(2015-12-15) Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C.A reply to the Comment by M. M. Ettefaghi and S. M. Fazeli
- ItemThe data processing pipeline for the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer(Oxford University Press, 2016) Fulton, T.; Naylor, David A.; Polehampton, E. T.; Valtchanov, I.; Hopwood, R.; Lu, N.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Mainetti, G.; Pearson, C.; Papageorgiou, A.; Guest, S.; Zhang, L.; Imhof, P.; Swinyard, B. M.; Griffin, M. J.; Lim, T. L.We present the data processing pipeline to generate calibrated data products from the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory. The pipeline processes telemetry from SPIRE observations and produces calibrated spectra for all resolution modes. The spectrometer pipeline shares some elements with the SPIRE photometer pipeline, including the conversion of telemetry packets into data timelines and calculation of bolometer voltages. We present the following fundamental processing steps unique to the spectrometer: temporal and spatial interpolation of the scan mechanism and detector data to create interferograms; Fourier transformation; apodization; and creation of a data cube. We also describe the corrections for various instrumental effects including ﬁrst- and second-level glitch identiﬁcation and removal, correction of the effects due to emission from the Herschel telescope and from within the spectrometer instrument, interferogram baseline correction, temporal and spatial phase correction, non-linear response of the bolometers, and variation of instrument performance across the focal plane arrays. Astronomical calibration is based on combinations of observations of standard astronomical sources and regions of space known to contain minimal emission.
- ItemDiscreteness of space from GUP II: relativistic wave equations(2015-12-22) Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C.; Ali, Ahmed FaragVarious theories of Quantum Gravity predict modifications of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Prin- ciple near the Planck scale to a so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). In some recent papers, we showed that the GUP gives rise to corrections to the Schrdinger equation, which in turn affect all quantum mechanical Hamiltonians. In particular, by applying it to a particle in a one- dimensional box, we showed that the box length must be quantized in terms of a fundamental length (which could be the Planck length), which we interpreted as a signal of fundamental discreteness of space itself. In this Letter, we extend the above results to a relativistic particle in a rectangular as well as a spherical box, by solving the GUP-corrected KleinGordon and Dirac equations, and for the latter, to two and three dimensions. We again arrive at quantization of box length, area and volume and an indication of the fundamentally grainy nature of space. We discuss possible implications.
- ItemDiscreteness of space from GUP in a weak gravitational field(Elsevier, 2016) Deb, Soumen; Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C.Quantum gravity effects modify the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Earlier work showed that the GUP-induced corrections to the Schrödinger equation, when applied to a non-relativistic particle in a one-dimensional box, led to the quantization of length. Similarly, corrections to the Klein–Gordon and the Dirac equations, gave rise to length, area and volume quantizations. These results suggest a fundamental granular structure of space. In this work, it is investigated how spacetime curvature and gravity might influence this discreteness of space. In particular, by adding a weak gravitational background field to the above three quantum equations, it is shown that quantization of lengths, areas and volumes continue to hold. However, it should be noted that the nature of this new quantization is quite complex and under proper limits, it reduces to cases without gravity. These results suggest that quantum gravity effects are universal.
- ItemDiscreteness of space from the generalized uncertainty principle(2015-12-15) Ali, Ahmed Farag; Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C.Various approaches to Quantum Gravity (such as String Theory and Doubly Special Relativity), as well as black hole physics predict a minimum measurable length, or a maximum observable momentum, and related modifications of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle to a so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). We propose a GUP consistent with String Theory, Doubly Special Relativity and black hole physics, and show that this modifies all quantum mechanical Hamiltonians. When applied to an elementary particle, it implies that the space which confines it must be quantized. This suggests that space itself is discrete, and that all measurable lengths are quantized in units of a fundamental length (which can be the Planck length). On the one hand, this signals the breakdown of the spacetime continuum picture near that scale, and on the other hand, it can predict an upper bound on the quantum gravity parameter in the GUP, from current observations. Furthermore, such fundamental discreteness of space may have observable consequences at length scales much larger than the Planck scale.
- ItemEffect of the generalized uncertainty principle on post-inflation preheating(2016-01-19) Chemissany, Wissam; Das, Saurya; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Vagenas, Elias C.We examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, predicted by various theories of quantum gravity to replace the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle near the Planck scale, on post inflation preheating in cosmology, and show that it can predict either an increase or a decrease in parametric resonance and a corresponding change in particle production. Possible implications are considered.
- ItemEikonal particle scattering and dilaton gravity(American Physical Society, 1997) Das, Saurya; Majumdar, ParthasarathiApproximating light charged pointlike particles in terms of ~nonextremal! dilatonic black holes is shown to lead to certain pathologies in Planckian scattering in the eikonal approximation, which are traced to the presence of a ~naked! curvature singularity in the metric of these black holes. The existence of such pathologies is confirmed by analyzing the problem in an ‘‘external metric’’ formulation where an ultrarelativistic point particle scatters off a dilatonic black hole geometry at large impact parameters. The maladies disappear almost trivially upon imposing the extremal limit. Attempts to derive an effective three-dimensional ‘‘boundary’’ field theory in the eikonal limit are stymied by four-dimensional ~bulk! terms proportional to the light-cone derivatives of the dilaton field, leading to nontrivial mixing of electromagnetic and gravitational effects, in contrast with the case of general relativity. An eikonal scattering amplitude, showing decoupling of these effects, is shown to be derivable by resummation of graviton, dilaton, and photon exchange ladder diagrams in a linearized version of the theory for an asymptotic value of the dilaton field which makes the string coupling constant nonperturbative.