Modern Languages and Linguistics
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- ItemReferential hierarchies in three-participant constructions in Blackfoot: the effects of animacy, person, and specificity(Dartouth College Library, 2012) Russell, Lena; Genee, Inge; van Lier, Eva; Zúñiga, FernandoThis paper discusses alignment patterns in three-participant constructions in Blackfoot (Western Algonquian; Canada, USA). We demonstrate the effects of referential hierarchies relating to animacy, person and specificity. Blackfoot verbs stem are subcategorized for transitivity and the animacy of S (for intransitives) and P(atient), R(ecipient), T(heme), or B(eneficiary) (for (di)transitives), showing cross-reference with at most two participants. Nonspecific participants are never cross-referenced, resulting in the possibility of constructions with three or even four participants, only one of which is cross-referenced on the verb. Even when all participants in a three-participant construction are specific, only two can be cross-referenced on the verb: the A and what is generally called the ‘primary object’ in Algonquian studies (T, R or B depending on the specific stem in question). Any remaining participants are not cross-referenced on the verb, irrespective of their specificity status. Whether T, R or B is chosen to be the primary object is lexically determined by the verbal stem, and more in particular by the so-called ‘final’, a derivational morpheme which closes every verb stem in Blackfoot. While Algonquian languages are often thought to display only secundative alignment, in line with the overwhelming importance of animacy in their grammars, we show that some stems require indirective alignment, while others allow for both configurations. Cross-referencing of A and B occurs as a result of applicativization with a benefactive final, which downgrades any potentially present T and/or R participants to non-cross-referenced objects. Finally, Blackfoot allows for a form of marking additional participants by a preverbal element called a ‘relative root’, which licenses a participant without influencing crossreferencing patterns and without indicating the specificity or animacy of the licensed participant.
- ItemAménagement de l'acquisition: du trilingiusme fontionnel a la pédagogie convergente(Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science, 2013) Takam, Alain F.Social bilingualism, unlike official bilingualism, is very common. In most countries, the official language/s and tens or hundreds of other languages coexist; many such unofficial languages facing extinction. What is noticeable is that when language planning does not follow the ecological approach, i.e., when it emphasizes the strengthening of a particular language rather than the “structured diversity” of all the languages that make up a particular linguistic ecosystem, that can negatively impact the survival of minority languages. This study, which was carried out from the perspective of ecolinguistics, was aimed at promoting linguistic diversity through the protection of minority languages. It was essentially based on acquisition planning. The protection referred to here could be ensured, among other means, through the progressive acquisition of three or more languages in the education system. In Cameroon, a French – English bilingual country, the minority official language and many local languages are taught in school with varying degrees of success. It was interesting to critically look at some teaching approaches of those languages with the objective of showing how it could be possible, for those whose first language is neither French nor English, to better learn French and/or English, through convergent pedagogy, an educative approach based on the development of bilingualism or multilingualism.
- ItemGetting the right grasp on executive function(Frontiers, 2014) Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Mills, Kelly J.; Genee, Inge; Li, Fangfang; Piquette-Tomei, Noëlla A.; Rosen, Nicole; Gibb, Robbin L.Executive Function (EF) refers to important socio-emotional and cognitive skills that are known to be highly correlated with both academic and life success. EF is a blanket term that is considered to include self-regulation, working memory, and planning. Recent studies have shown a relationship between EF and motor control. The emergence of motor control coincides with that of EF, hence understanding the relationship between these two domains could have significant implications for early detection and remediation of later EF deficits. The purpose of the current study was to investigate this relationship in young children. This study incorporated the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and two motor assessments with a focus on precision grasping to test this hypothesis.The BRIEF is comprised of two indices of EF: (1) the Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) containing three subscales: Inhibit, Shift,and Emotional Control; (2) the Metacognition Index (MI) containing five subscales: Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials, and Monitor. A global executive composite (GEC) is derived from the two indices. In this study, right-handed children aged 5–6 and 9–10 were asked to: grasp-to-construct (Lego®models); and grasp-to-place (wooden blocks), while their parents completed the BRIEF questionnaire. Analysis of results indicated significant correlations between the strength of right hand preference for grasping and numerous elements of the BRIEF including the BRI, MI, and GEC. Specifically, the more the right hand was used for grasping the better the EF ratings. In addition, patterns of space-use correlated with the GEC in several subscales of the BRIEF. Finally and remarkably, the results also showed a reciprocal relationship between hand and space use for grasping and EF. These findings are discussed with respect to: (1) the developmental overlap of motor and executive functions; (2) detection of EF deficits through tasks that measure lateralization of hand and space use; and (3) the possibility of using motor interventions to remediate EF deficits.
- ItemAligning open access publications with the research and teaching missions of the public university: the case of the Lethbridge Journal Incubator (If 'if's and 'and's were pots and pans)(Michigan Publishing, 2015) O'Donnell, Daniel Paul; Hobma, Heather; Cowan, Sandra A.; Ayers, Gillian; Bay, Jessica L.; Swanepoel, Marinus; Merkley, Wendy; Devine, Kelaine; Dering, Emma; Genee, IngeThe Lethbridge Journal Incubator is a joint project of the University of Lethbridge Library, School of Graduate Studies, and Faculty of Arts and Science. Its goal is to address the issue of sustainability of gold open access journals by aligning the publication process with the educational and research missions of the public University. In this way, the open access publication, which is more commonly understood as a cost center that draws resources away from a host university's core missions, is transformed into a sustainable, high-impact resourc that improves retention and recruitment. It does this by providing graduate students with ear experience with scholarly publishing (a proven contributor to in- and post-program student satisfaction and career success), highly-sought after research and technical skills, and project management experience. This article provides a background to the problem of financing gold open access publication and reports on the experience of the researchers responsible for establishing the incubator as it leaves its experimental phase and becomes a center of the University.
- ItemLanguage policy in education: second official language in (technical) education in Canada and Cameroon(Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2018) Takam, Alain F.; Mbouya, Innocent F.It should be said from the outset that, apart from Esambe’s (1999) MA thesis, no comparative research, to the best of our knowledge, has so far been devoted to the study of language policy in education in both Canada and Cameroon. Yet, these two countries offer a fascinating basis for comparison because English and French (which were instituted at roughly the same time in these two countries) are the two official languages in each country, but the minority status is reversed. This study, which rests on the observation that students from technical training programmes generally underperform or lack interest in their second official language (SOL), aims at comparing the current policies of SOL in education in order to see how both countries’ experiences can be mutually informing. To achieve its purpose, this research focuses on the analysis of the policies of official languages (OLs) in education in both countries, specifically regarding technical training programmes. More clearly, language policy in education and SOL education policy as obtained in both countries will be comparatively examined. The comparison, it is hoped, will reveal the fundamental causes of the overall poor performance or lack of interest observed in Cameroon and Canada respectively.
- Item"Credit where credit is due": authorship and attribution in Algonquian language digital resources(2020) Bliss, Heather; Genee, Inge; Junker, Marie-Odile; O'Donnell, Daniel Paul
- ItemThe Blackfoot Language Resources and Digital Dictionary project: creating integrated web resources for language documentation and revitalization(University of Hawaii Press, 2021) Genee, Inge; Junker, Marie-OdileThis paper describes ongoing work to create a suite of integrated web resources in support of Blackfoot language documentation, maintenance, and revitalization efforts. Built around a digital dictionary, the website also contains grammar sketches, a library of other language-related resources, and a story archive. The project began its life as advocacy research (i.e., a digital repatriation project) but developed into empowerment research through community participation. The first phase consisted of back-digitization of an existing print dictionary. The second phase, which is ongoing, works toward making the dictionary user-friendly for speakers, learners, and teachers, and embedding it in a website that contains supporting content. Key features are developed collaboratively with Blackfoot community members. In order to create an environment in which all participants are equally empowered to help shape the project, a Participatory Action Research approach was adopted for the second phase of teamwork. This resulted in important new priorities for presentation, content, and enhancement of features. It has also had impact on the participants themselves, who developed awareness and new relationships as well as acquiring new skills and knowledge, which for some contributed to new jobs and academic directions. Finally, the project is producing new material to address existing research questions and generating new questions for future research projects.