Browsing Gibb, Robbin by Issue Date
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- ItemExperimental stimulation as a treatment for early brain damage(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Arts and Science, 2001, 2001) Gibb, Robbin L.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Kolb, BryanThe current work explores the therapeutic potential of experiential treatments for enhancing functional recovery and anatomical change after early brain damage. Normal rats and rats with perinatal cortical lesions (P2 or P7) were exposed to one of the following treatments: complex housing as juveniles, complex housing as adults, prenatal tactile stimulation, postnatal tactile stimulation, or postnatal handling (removal from the nest with no additional stimulaion). Behavior was assessed in adulthood the Morris water task and the Whishaw reaching task. There were sex differences in the details of the effect of experience on both behavioral recovery and brain morphology. For both sexes treatments initiated prior to or immediately after brain injury were most effective in improving functional outcome. This was correlated with changes in dendritic arborization and Acetylcholinesterase staining. The results suggest that behavioral treatments can be used to stimulate functional recovery after early brain injury.
- ItemPerinatal experience alters brain development and functional recovery after cerebral injury in rats(Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Arts and Science, 2004, 2004) Gibb, Robbin L.; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science; Kolb, BryanBrain damage in the first week of life is behaviorally and anatomically devastating for a rat. I investigated the use of pre- and/or postnatal experience as interventions that might improve the outcomes in rats with postnatal day 4 (P4) frontal cortex lesions. Prenatal maternal tactile stimulation or maternal complex housing facilitated recovery in P4 lesion animals and produced changes in brain organization. Post-lesion tactile stimulation also was found to be beneficial possibly via experience dependent changes in FGF-2 expression. Levels of FGF-2 were increased in both skin and brain after tactile stimulation and correlated with behavioral and anatomical changes. Direct post-lesion administration of FGF-2 had similar effects. These results are the first demonstration that prenatal experience can be prophylactic for postnatal brain injury and that behavioral experience can act on brain organization via enhanced trophic factor expression originating in skin.
- ItemFactors influencing cerebral plasticity in the normal and injured brain(Frontiers Research Foundation, 2010) Kolb, Bryan; Teskey, G. Campbell; Gibb, Robbin L.An important development in behavioral neuroscience in the past 20 years has been the demonstration that it is possible to stimulate functional recovery after cerebral injury in laboratory animals. Rodent models of cerebral injury provide an important tool for developing such rehabilitation programs. The models include analysis at different levels including detailed behavioral paradigms, electrophysiology, neuronal morphology, protein chemistry, and epigenetics. A significant challenge for the next 20 years will be the translation of this work to improve the outcome from brain injury and disease in humans. Our goal in the article will be to synthesize the multidisciplinary laboratory work on brain plasticity and behavior in the injured brain to inform the development of rehabilitation programs.
- ItemPrenatal enrichment and recovery from perinatal cortical damage: effects of maternal complex housing(Frontiers Research Foundation, 2014) Gibb, Robbin L.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Kolb, BryanBirth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group) for 12 h per day until the dams’ delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard) cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group) throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3) infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioral testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behavior of their pups. Control animals from condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Codomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.
- ItemGetting the right grasp on executive function(Frontiers, 2014) Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Mills, Kelly J.; Genee, Inge; Li, Fangfang; Piquette-Tomei, Noëlla A.; Rosen, Nicole; Gibb, Robbin L.Executive Function (EF) refers to important socio-emotional and cognitive skills that are known to be highly correlated with both academic and life success. EF is a blanket term that is considered to include self-regulation, working memory, and planning. Recent studies have shown a relationship between EF and motor control. The emergence of motor control coincides with that of EF, hence understanding the relationship between these two domains could have significant implications for early detection and remediation of later EF deficits. The purpose of the current study was to investigate this relationship in young children. This study incorporated the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and two motor assessments with a focus on precision grasping to test this hypothesis.The BRIEF is comprised of two indices of EF: (1) the Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) containing three subscales: Inhibit, Shift,and Emotional Control; (2) the Metacognition Index (MI) containing five subscales: Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials, and Monitor. A global executive composite (GEC) is derived from the two indices. In this study, right-handed children aged 5–6 and 9–10 were asked to: grasp-to-construct (Lego®models); and grasp-to-place (wooden blocks), while their parents completed the BRIEF questionnaire. Analysis of results indicated significant correlations between the strength of right hand preference for grasping and numerous elements of the BRIEF including the BRI, MI, and GEC. Specifically, the more the right hand was used for grasping the better the EF ratings. In addition, patterns of space-use correlated with the GEC in several subscales of the BRIEF. Finally and remarkably, the results also showed a reciprocal relationship between hand and space use for grasping and EF. These findings are discussed with respect to: (1) the developmental overlap of motor and executive functions; (2) detection of EF deficits through tasks that measure lateralization of hand and space use; and (3) the possibility of using motor interventions to remediate EF deficits.
- ItemSpeech in action: degree of hand preference for grasping predicts speech articulation competence in children(Frontiers Media, 2014) Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Li, Fangfang; Mills, Kelly J.; Rosen, Nicole; Gibb, Robbin L.Degree of lateralization for grasping predicts the maturity of the language production system in young, typically-developing children. In this report we provide compelling evidence for the relationship between right hand grasp-to-mouth (i.e.,feeding) movements and language development. Specifically, we show that children (4–5years old) who are more right-hand lateralized in picking up small food items for consumption show enhanced differentiation of the “s” and “sh” sounds. This result suggests that left hemisphere control of hand-to-mouth gestures may have provided an evolutionary platform for the development of language. The current investigation presents the exciting possibility that early right hand-to-mouth training could accelerate the development of articulation skills.
- ItemPlasticity in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats(Frontiers Media, 2015) Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin L.We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density) in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions.
- ItemArticulation speaks to executive function: an investigation in 4- to 6-year olds(Frontiers Media, 2018) Netelenbos, Nicole; Gibb, Robbin L.; Li, Fangfang; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.Executive function (EF) and language learning play a prominent role in early childhood development. Empirical research continues to point to a concurrent relation between these two faculties. What has been given little attention, however, is the association between EF and speech articulation abilities in children. This study investigated this relation in children aged 4–6 years. Signiﬁcant correlations indicated that children with better EF [via parental report of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)inventory] exhibited stronger speech sound production abilities in the articulation of the “s” and “sh” sounds. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that the Global Executive Composite (GEC) of EF as measured by the BRIEF, served as a predictor for speech sound proﬁciency and that speech sound proﬁciency served as a predictor for the GEC. Together, these results demonstrate the imbricated nature of EF and speech sound production while bearing theoretical and practical implications. From a theoretical standpoint, the close link between EF and speech articulation may indicate a common ontogenetic pathway. From a practical perspective, the results suggest that children with speech difﬁculties could be at higher risk for EF deﬁcits.